Forjamento

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Metal Forming ‐ 3 (Forging of Metals)
Assoc Prof Zainal Abidin Ahmad FKM UTM

Lecture Outline
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Forging operations Classification of forging processes Closed and open die forging process Effect of forging on microstructure Other forging related processes
– Coining – Swaging – Roll forging

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7. Typical forging defects Abidin Ahmad Assoc Prof Zainal2

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1. Introduction

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Introduction
• Typical forged products are such as gears,  connecting rods, bolts 

Landing-gear components for the C5A and C5B transport aircraft, made by forging
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Steps involved in forging a bevel gear with a shaft.
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2. Outline of Forging and Related Operations

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Forging Operations

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Forging Operations

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Forging Operations

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3. Classifications of forging processes
• By equipment
– Forging hammer or drop hammer –Press forging

• By process
– Open die forging – Closed die forging Closed die forging

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Forging machines

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Hammer and press forging  processes
• Forging hammers
– Board hammer – Power hammer

• Forging presses
– Mechanical press – Hydraulic press Hydraulic press

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Board hammer – forging hammer

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Forging hammer or drop hammer

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• Example of forging  hammer or drop  hammer • The energy The energy  supplied by the  blow is equal to  the potential  energy due to the  weight of the ram  and the height of  the fall20-Aug-08 Assoc Prof Zainal Abidin Ahmad 14

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Power hammer

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Hydraulic press forging
• Using a hydraulic press or  mechanical press to forge the  mechanical press to forge the metal, therefore, gives continuous  forming at a slower rate. • Provides deeper penetration • Better properties (more  homogeneous) • Equipment is expensive20-Aug-08

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A general view of a 445 MN (50,000 ton) hydraulic press. Source: Wyman-Gordon Company.

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Mechanical press machine

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Mechanical presswith an eccentric drive; the eccentric shaft can be replaced by a crankshaft to give the up-and-down motion to the ram
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Principles of Various Forging Machines (cont.)

Schematic illustration of the principles of various forging machines. (c) Knuckle-joint press. (d) Screw press. (e) Gravity drop hammer.
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4. Closed and open die forging  processes

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Open die forging
• Open die forging is carried  out between flat dies or  dies of very simple shapes • The process is used for  mostly large objects or  when the number of parts  produced is small •Open die forging is often  used to pre‐form the  workpiece for closed die  forging
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Upsetting

Figure 14.4 (a) Solid cylindrical billet upset between two flat dies. (b) Uniform deformation of the billet without friction. (c) Deformation with friction. Note barreling of the billet caused by friction forces at the billet-die interfaces.

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