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The Microsoft
Visual Basic
Language Specification

Version 10.0

Paul Vick, Lucian Wischik
Microsoft Corporation

The information contained in this document represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date of publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part ofMicrosoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication.
This Language Specification is for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT.
Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the user. Without limiting the rights undercopyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of Microsoft Corporation.
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Unless otherwise noted, the example companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places and eventsdepicted herein are fictitious, and no association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, email address, logo, person, place or event is intended or should be inferred.
2010Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Microsoft, MS-DOS, Visual Basic, Windows 2000, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows NT, Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows are either registeredtrademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
The names of actual companies and products mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction 1
1.1 Grammar Notation 1
1.2 Compatibility 2
1.2.1 Kinds of compatibility breaks 2
1.2.2 Impact Criteria 4
1.2.3 Language deprecation 5
2. LexicalGrammar 7
2.1 Characters and Lines 7
2.1.1 Line Terminators 7
2.1.2 Line Continuation 8
2.1.3 White Space 10
2.1.4 Comments 10
2.2 Identifiers 11
2.2.1 Type Characters 13
2.3 Keywords 14
2.4 Literals 16
2.4.1 Boolean Literals 17
2.4.2 Integer Literals 17
2.4.3 Floating-Point Literals 18
2.4.4 String Literals 20
2.4.5 Character Literals 21
2.4.6 Date Literals 22
2.4.7Nothing 23
2.5 Separators 23
2.6 Operator Characters 24
3. Preprocessing Directives 25
3.1 Conditional Compilation 25
3.1.1 Conditional Constant Directives 27
3.1.2 Conditional Compilation Directives 28
3.2 External Source Directives 29
3.3 Region Directives 30
3.4 External Checksum Directives 31
4. General Concepts 33
4.1 Declarations 33
4.1.1 Overloading and Signatures 34
4.2Scope 36
4.3 Inheritance 37
4.3.1 MustInherit and NotInheritable Classes 39
4.3.2 Interfaces and Multiple Inheritance 40
4.3.3 Shadowing 43
4.4 Implementation 52
4.4.1 Implementing Methods 56
4.5 Polymorphism 59
4.5.1 Overriding Methods 61
4.6 Accessibility 67
4.6.1 Constituent Types 70
4.7 Type and Namespace Names 71
4.7.1 Qualified Name Resolution 73
4.7.2 Unqualified NameResolution 74
4.8 Variables 76
4.9 Generic Types and Methods 76
4.9.1 Type Parameters 78
4.9.2 Type Constraints 82
4.9.3 Type Parameter Variance 88
5. Attributes 93
5.1 Attribute Classes 94
5.2 Attribute Blocks 97
5.2.1 Attribute Names 99
5.2.2 Attribute Arguments 100
6. Source Files and Namespaces 105
6.1 Program Startup and Termination 106
6.2 Compilation Options 106
6.2.1...
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