Brand experience

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J. Jo sko Brakus, Bernd H. Schmitt, & Lia Zarantonello
˘

Brand Experience: What Is It? How Is
It Measured? Does It Affect Loyalty?
Brand experience is conceptualized as sensations, feelings, cognitions, and behavioral responses evoked by
brand-related stimuli that are part of a brand’s design and identity, packaging, communications, and environments.
The authors distinguish severalexperience dimensions and construct a brand experience scale that includes four
dimensions: sensory, affective, intellectual, and behavioral. In six studies, the authors show that the scale is reliable,
valid, and distinct from other brand measures, including brand evaluations, brand involvement, brand attachment,
customer delight, and brand personality. Moreover, brand experience affects consumersatisfaction and loyalty
directly and indirectly through brand personality associations.

Keywords: experience marketing, brand experience, customer experience management, scale development,
marketing communications
brand attachment) and develop a scale that can measure the
strength with which a brand evokes each experience dimension. However, the experience construct is not as clearlyassociated with one particular basic discipline (e.g., psychology) as other brand constructs are. For example, brand
personality and brand attachment have been defined on the
basis of equivalent concepts in personality and developmental psychology; as a result, the development of
scale items was relatively straightforward. In contrast, writing on experience can be found in a wide range of fields,including marketing, philosophy, cognitive science, and
management practice. Therefore, we must clearly conceptualize our construct and develop scale items based on this
conceptualization.
To define and conceptualize the brand experience construct, we begin with a review of consumer and marketing
research, which examines when experiences occur and how
they affect judgments, attitudes, and otheraspects of consumer behavior. Next, we review the literature in philosophy, cognitive science, and applied management to distinguish brand experience dimensions and develop a brand
experience scale. We then examine the psychometric properties of the scale using standard scale validation procedures. Finally, we test whether brand experience affects
consumer satisfaction and loyalty.

ow doconsumers experience a brand? How is brand
experience measured? Does brand experience affect
consumer behavior? Many useful constructs and
measurements have been developed recently in the branding
literature, including brand personality, brand community,
brand trust, brand attachment, and brand love (Aaker 1997;
Carroll and Ahuvia 2006; Delgado-Ballester, MunueraAlemán, and Yagüe-Guillén 2003;McAlexander, Schouten,
and Koenig 2002; Thomson, MacInnis, and Park 2005).
However, a conceptualization and scale for measuring
brand experiences has not yet been developed. In addition,
research has studied contexts in which specific product and
service experiences arise (Arnould, Price, and Zinkhan
2002). However, research has largely ignored the exact
nature and dimensional structure ofbrand experiences.
Notably, brand experience has attracted a lot of attention in marketing practice. Marketing practitioners have
come to realize that understanding how consumers experience brands is critical for developing marketing strategies
for goods and services. Many trade writings have appeared
that present useful concepts as well as some ad hoc experience measurements (Chattopadhyayand Laborie 2005; Pine
and Gilmore 1999; Schmitt 1999, 2003; Shaw and Ivens
2002; Smith and Wheeler 2002).
In this article, we present both a conceptual analysis of
brand experience and a brand experience scale. As with
other brand research, the development of a brand experience scale must go hand-in-hand with conceptual development of the construct itself. We need to identify the underlying...
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