Marketing strategy: taxonomy and frameworks
Adel I. El-Ansary
Coggin College of Business, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, Florida, USA
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present taxonomy of marketing strategy concepts and integrative frameworksthat differentiate and integrate its formulation and implementation processes. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is conceptual based on a review of academic literature on marketing strategy chronicled in major marketing journals January 1990-April 2006. We present selected references classiﬁed by key marketing strategy topics for further pursuit by interested readers. Also, the paperreﬂects our experience and views based on practices chronicled in corporate case studies and trade journals. Findings – The literature casts marketing strategy formulation and implementation in the context of strategic planning and marketing strategy process models. The focus of the strategic planning model is on achieving corporate ﬁnancial objectives through the implementation of product, pricing,promotion, and place (distribution) programs. The focus of the marketing strategy process model is on the formulation of segmentation, targeting, differentiation, and positioning strategies to create, communicate, and deliver the value to the customer resulting in gaining customer satisfaction and loyalty; i.e. marketing objectives. Practical implications – The propositions and frameworks constituteguidelines useful in the process of marketing strategy formulations and implementation by practitioners and establish bases for academic researchers to test concept validity, examine concept differences, and explore concept relationships. Originality/value – This paper advances propositions that clearly differentiate, but interrelate, marketing strategy formulation and implementation processes andrecast the strategic planning ﬁnancial-oriented model and the marketing strategy process models into a set of frameworks to demonstrate that: the road to healthy ﬁnancial results must ﬁrst be paved by sound marketing strategies; explicitly state and underscore the role of branding and organizational strategies in mediating formulated marketing strategy into actionable marketing programs; andbroaden the concept of ﬁrm orientation to reﬂect its role in mediating corporate strategy into a set of functional strategies including marketing. Keywords Marketing strategy, Formulation, Implementation, Taxonomy, Frameworks, Models Paper type Conceptual paper
European Business Review Vol. 18 No. 4, 2006 pp. 266-293 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0955-534X DOI 10.1108/09555340610677499The marketing literature is replete with normative and positive theoretical and empirical research-based papers and articles dealing with various aspects and elements inherent in the processes of marketing strategy formulation and implementation. Albeit robust in concept, unlike consumer behaviour, personal selling, and advertising, marketing strategy did not rise to the status of asub-discipline of marketing! Surprising at ﬁrst glance, but clear when subjected to scrutiny! First, there is no family tree that reﬂect clear genealogy of marketing strategy, its heritage and relationships with one of its parent disciplines, strategy, and brother and sister strategies of the ﬁrm; i.e. corporate strategy; growth strategy; other functional area strategies such as production/operation, ﬁnance,and human resource strategies; competitive strategy; e-strategy; and global strategy! Second, the concept of marketing strategy lacks clarity in the sense that in one breath the literature counts segmentation, targeting, differentiation, and positioning as
marketing strategies and in the same breath recounts the marketing mix elements/4 Ps, i.e. product, pricing, promotion and place...