Urban waters

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urban Waters
Carlos E. M. TuCCi
Urban development

u

urban structure

rban development accelerated in the second half of the 20th century with the concentration of the population in reduced space. this triggered greater competition for the same natural resources (land and water) and led to destruction of natural biodiversity. the environment formed by natural space and by the population(socio-economic and urban) is a living and dynamic being that generates a set of interconnected effects, which if not controlled, can lead the city to chaos. the objective of sustainable urban development is to improve the quality of life of the population as well as environmental conservation. It is also essentially integrating to the degree to which good quality of life is only possible in awell conserved environment that can meets the needs of the population supporting the harmony of man and nature. the principal components of urban management are: • land use planning and management: by definition this involves the development of a Master Plan to determine how the city should be occupied and the corrections that need to be made in relation to the past and present; • road, water,energy, communication and transportation infrastructure: planning and management of this infrastructure can be implanted by public or private agencies, but which should be regulated by a municipality; • Socio-environmental management: the management of the urban environment is conducted by municipal, state or federal entities, according to the institutional structure. the management involves theevaluation and approval of projects, monitoring, inspection and research so that urban development is socio-environmentally sustainable.

indicators urban systems1 are primordially areas of consumption and housing. they have different sizes or composed through the integration of various areas as Metropolitan Regions. In 1900, 13% of the global population was urban; it is now 50%, occupying only 2.8% ofglobal territory. the urban population of Brazil has reached 83%. In 2010, it is expected that 50.8% of the world’s
estudos avançados
22 (63), 2008

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urban population will be in asia and 13.4%, in Latin america and the Caribbean. the world is becoming increasingly urban because of economic development, generating pressure on the environment occupied by urbanization. the principalindicators of urban development are: • Population factors: growth rate, migration and urban densification; • Economic: income, gross product and production profile; • Land Use: distribution by type of use of urban space in residential, commercial and industrial, or public spaces. urbanization increases with economic growth, as the profile of income is altered and employment concentrated more in servicesand industry than in agriculture. With urbanization, the birth rate tends to decrease because of various social factors. urban growth in recent decades has transformed Brazil into an essentially urban country (83% of the population is urban). this process took place in particular in the Metropolitan Regions (MR) and in the cities that became regional centers. the MRs has a principal nucleus withvarious neighboring cities. the growth rate of the nucleus of the MR is small, while the growth of the periphery is very high. Cities with more than one million inhabitants grow at an average annual rate of 0.9%, while regional cities with population between 100,00 and 500,000 (medium-size cities according to Ipea/IBGe (MMa, 2000)grow at a rate of 4.8% (IBGe, 1998). all the inadequate processes ofurbanization and environmental impact that are found in the MRs are reproducing in the medium size cities. Cities with populations above 100,000 people account for 51% of the Brazilian population, distributed in 212 municipalities, while the thirty largest municipalities (larger than 500,000), represent 27% of the population. during the past century, urban development created standards of urban...
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