Social Participation in Water and wastewater Governance: Theories and Goals
3.1 What is Governance and what is not Governance?
The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) defines governance as "the exercise of economic, political and administrative head to manage the affairs of a country at all levels. It comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through whichcitizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and conciliate their differences (EUWI, 2006). .
When the jurisdictions say Governance it refers the Governance at the level of Global society. According the International Institute of Accountants (IFAC, 2005) “Governance is concerned with structures and processes for decision-making, accountability,control and behavior at the top of organizations. When the concept is used in the private sector it is often used the term “Corporate Governance”. In other jurisdictions “government governance” is used to describe governance in the public sector.
Governance is the stage following the democratic society and citizenship education Faried Adams (2006) stats “cultivating a particular type ofcitizen has the potential to make them more critical and thus imbue them with the potential to identify their restricted ability to participate in democratic structures (Adams, 2006)”. Have a democratic a structure is not in itself sufficient to governance happen. Duncan searching regarding the policy governance of the U.S. government.. There is already a program of "Open Government", but the program"Open Governance" of President Obama's agenda should be different. He explains:
“I consider open government as the government establishing a reliable structure and a capability to provide access to information and communication in a standardize manner across the executive branch. Open governance is the practice of facilitating individual and group dialog in collaborative exchanges that enablescitizens to advance and initiate discussions as well as respond to questions and conversations originated by government.
Because Governance is a different concept it should not be understood as a good government or good management. Adam (2009) also said that Governance is not an “Open Government Part II”, but as a main component of the entire challenge. So when citizens know that governmentpolicy reflects their views and wishes, he will see that it makes sense to participate in the facility provided by the Government. Adam says "That Is Where the public really gets Engaged. That is where the real value of online government and Democracy will be bealized "(Adam, 2009).
What then means Water Governance? According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 2004) WaterGovernance “encompasses the political, economic and social processes and institutions by which governments, civil society, and the private sector make decisions about how best to use, develop and manage water resources (UNDP, 2004; UEWI, 2006)”
Therefore，water governance relates to an integrated effort to manage all social actors linked to water. It means “the public participation in designing waterand sanitation systems and policymaking (at national, city, or community level) as well as how and by whom”. (UNDP, 2004).
Why water governance is an important issue nowadays? The UNDP report (2004) point some reasons: “The serious risks associated with the growing water crisis, illness, hunger, environmental degradation, conflict, stymied economic development; require urgent action in all partsof the world and by all people, from local communities to international bodies. (UNDP, 2004).
3.2 A more detailed reflection on social participation
Because an important component in public governance is the degree of representativeness of the society, we will present some definitions and practical examples about the public participation in the formulation of government policies....