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Comparing Selected Criteria of Programming Languages
Java, PHP, C++, Perl, Haskell, AspectJ, Ruby, COBOL, Bash
Scripts and Scheme
Revision 1.0
Sultan S. Al-Qahtani
Concordia University
Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Luis F. Guzman
Concordia University
Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Rafik Arif
Concordia University
Montreal, Quebec, Canadar_ar@cse.concordia.ca

Adrien Tevoedjre
Concordia University
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Pawel Pietrzynski
Concordia University
Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Comparison of programming languages is a common topic of discussion among software engineers. Few languages ever
become sufficiently popular that they are used by more than afew people or find their niche in research or education; but
professional programmers can easily use dozens of different languages during their career. Multiple programming
languages are designed, specified, and implemented every year in order to keep up with the changing programming
paradigms, hardware evolution, etc. In this paper we present a comp arative study between ten programminglanguages:
Haskell, Java, Perl, C++, AspectJ, COBOL, Ruby, PHP, Bash Scripts, and Scheme; with respect of the following criteria: Secure
programming practices, web applications development, web services design and comp osition, object oriented-based
abstraction, reflection, aspect-orientation, functional programming, declarative programming, batch scripting, and user
interface prototype design. 1. Introduction
The first high-level programming languages were designed during the 1950s. Ever since then, programming
languages have been a fascinating and productive area of study [43]. Thousands of different programming
languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, with many more being created every year; they ar e
designed, specified, and implemented for the purpose of beingup to date with the evolving programming
paradigms (e.g. imperative, object-oriented, aspect-oriented, reflective, and functional to name a few).
While some programming languages enjoy world-wide popularity and are commonly used to develop large,
enterprise-level applications (e.g. C, C++, C#, Java, PHP, or Perl); others are only used by a lower number of
people or are more oriented to theacademia for research and education (e.g. OCaml, Haskel l, Scheme, OZ, or
Computer scientists aim to develop programming languages that combine expressive power with simplicity and
efficiency [43], also they are aimed to support multiple programming paradigms; such is the case of Ruby,
Python, or Delphi. The idea of a multi-paradigm language is to provide a framework in which programmerscan
work in a variety of styles, freely intermixing constructs from different paradigms. The design goal of such
languages is to allow programmers to use the best tool for a job, admitting that no one paradigm solves all
problems in the easiest or most efficient way [53].
With the continuing increase in the variety, functionality, and complexity of engineering software, with its morewidespread use, and with its increasing importance, more attention must be paid to programming language
suitability so that rational decisions regarding language selection may be made [43].

1.1 Related Work
Extensive work and research have been done in the field of comparative studies of program ming languages. In
the paper “Programming Languages: A Comparative Study” *43] the authors collate C++,Java, Lisp, and Perl
under the parameters of reusability, portability, reliability, readability, efficiency, availability of compilers and
tools, familiarity and expressiveness. Also a study of program length, programming effort, run time efficiency,
memory consumption, and reliability is disclosed by implementing and running the same set of programs on said
In the paper titled “A...
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