HOW CAN ‘LEARNING’ REACH OUR STUDENTS?
There are two ways on how learning can reach our students:
+ In an informal process: picking up words from books, friends, internet, magazines, TV etc;
+ In a formal process: attending lessons, taking part in classroom activities, self-study etc.
Learning may also happen without the learners being aware of it.+ They copy expressions and phrases from other people;
+ They analyze how language is used.
|Activity 1 |
|Think about your experience of learning English. How did you learn? What effect did your English teachers and the way they |
|taught have on you? Have yourexperiences as a language learner affected your teaching? If so, in what way? |
KINDS OF LEARNERS
Learners can be Active or Passive.
They develop positive habits that allow them to learn more quickly and efficiently.
They like to be in their own world. They do not speak much and participate in the class.
Theteacher’s job is to help learners learn. This relates both to the formal classroom process and learning outside the classroom.
Teachers are responsible for a large amount of what happens in the classroom. Moreover, the relation between learning and teaching is complicated and often not direct. Learners often don’t learn what we teach and equally often learn what we don’t teach. One way tohelp overcome this problem is to create a positive relationship between yourself and learners.
One of the ways in which teachers can help learners is by providing carefully structured support. This support is sometimes described as scaffolding: the teacher supports the efforts of the learner, guiding them in the right direction, until the knowledge and understanding they have built isstrong enough for the ‘scaffolding’ to be taken.
FACTORS WHICH AFFECT LANGUAGE LEARNING
The relationship between teaching and learning is a key factor in whether learning takes place effectively. There are also other factors which mean that some people learn more easily and more quickly than others.
Among those factors we can mention: innate ability, aptitude, motivation, age,proximity of L1 to English, opportunity to use the target language, learning strategies, relationship to teaching, relationship to the teacher, relationship with other learners, embarrassment and anxiety, self-confidence, attitudes towards language learning, attitudes towards English and English-speaking countries, status and values of the target language in the country and learning theories.THE LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESS
The language learning process can be divided into five stages: INPUT → NOTICING → RECOGNIZING PATTERNS AND RULE MAKING → USE AND RULE MODIFICATION → AUTOMATING
LANGUAGE LEARNING AIMS
Learners need to balance the following four aspects of their language ability: fluency, accuracy, complexity and appropriacy.
|♫ Listen to a teacher talking about their experiences of teaching and learning. |
|Which of the following does Alastair NOT mention as a problem for learners of a foreign language? |
|(a) fear of making mistakes...