(Adaptado de http://www.calea.org/online/newsletter/No81/jobanalysis.htm)
The Southern Police Institute was contracted by the Kentucky State Police to conduct a job analysis on the position of Trooper. The desire of both parties was to develop an accurate understanding of the skills, knowledge, abilities,behaviors, and beliefs required to be a successful Kentucky State Police Trooper. Building on the data developed for the Trooper position the Southern Police Institute was subsequently tasked with gaining an accurate understanding of the positions of Sergeant, Lieutenant, and Captain.
The process required the Southern Police Institute to develop recommendations that would be used by the KentuckyState Police to accurately describe the positions of Trooper, Sergeant, Lieutenant, and Captain. We provided recommendations to be used to develop those job descriptions, with additional recommendations appropriate to each position’s job specification and job function. In following these recommendations, the Kentucky State Police was able to develop valid depictions of positions and definestandards for identifying the best-qualified individuals for positional placement at each level.
Job Descriptions, Job Specifications, Job Functions
The Job Description are a listing of tasks required of the position holder. These tasks may not be all-inclusive, but there are always the tasks essential to the position. Job functions detail the responsibilities associated with the position andmay be used to define the training and evaluative requirements of the job.
The Job Specifications lists the requirements that an applicant must possess for a specific position. It is through the job specification that positional requirements are listed. These job specifications are mandatory for any person entering into that position. The job specification may range from educationalrequirements to a requirement to be within a pay grade or job classification for a specific period.
The Job Analysis Process
The Southern Police Institute employed focus groups to begin to understand the breath of responsibilities associated with the position of Trooper. Twenty-seven Troopers participated in Focus Group. These Troopers were brought together in three separategroups. They were selected by the Command Staff of the Kentucky State Police to represent road patrol, criminal investigators, support personnel, executive protection, crime lab, specialized units, and the northern, eastern, western, and central Kentucky assignment areas. The outcomes from these focus groups were used to assist in developing the survey developed to collect data for the jobdescription.
These groups were required to account for the wide varieties of specialized assignments, specific assigned areas of responsibilities, and types and degrees of accountability. These ranged from field assignment at individual posts to administrative assignments at headquarters. We determined that in order to gain a complete understanding of positions we would be required to have eachposition holder describe both the primary job function and the primary purpose of each assigned position.
The task of defining those specific job functions for which the current position holders were responsible was made somewhat easier since we had used focus groups to assist in developing written promotional examinations in the recent past.
The Command Staff also requested that we survey todetermine the basic physical requirements associated with position of Trooper and to validate that the current physical standards evaluation was appropriately job related. Our investigation determined that the current evaluation was job related and provides an assessment of overall physical fitness and abilities appropriate for entry into the Kentucky State Police as a Cadet Trooper.