Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Journal of Cleaner Production
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro
Disassemblability of end-of-life vehicle: a critical review of evaluation methods
T.F. Go*, D.A. Wahab, M.N.Ab. Rahman, R. Ramli, C.H. Azhari
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty ofEngineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 6 February 2010 Received in revised form 18 April 2011 Accepted 4 May 2011 Available online 31 May 2011 Keywords: End-of-life vehicles Disassemblability Design for disassembly and recycling Recovery
a b s t r a c t
Environmental sustainability hasbecome the main items of contest in the automotive industries. Therefore in the order to reduce the environmental impact of end-of-life vehicles, European Union, Japan, USA, and Australia laws require manufacturers to take back their products at the end of their useful life and recycle them. In order to enhance the recycling rate of the vehicle, disassemblability of the automotive components has beena major concern. In the chain of end-of-life, except for landﬁll and incineration, components of economic value destined for reuse, remanufacture, or recycling have ﬁrst to be disassembled from the end-of-life vehicles. There are several efforts within the academic community to rationalise design for disassembly and recycling, and several attempts by industry to study these issues in the contextof speciﬁc products. Recent publications offer a broad perspective on recyclability and disassemblability. It is therefore necessary to determine the optimal stage of disassembly, when all economically valuable components are retrieved. This paper presents a review of several disassemblability methods, including spread sheet-like chart, end-of-life value and time for disassembly. The reviewconcludes on the need for an effective disassembly method in order to enhance the recovery of products. Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction In recent years, issues on environmental and sustainability have become the main items of contest in the automotive industries. In most developed countries, end-of-life legislations have been set as the situation worsens (Mat Saman andBlount, 2006). These legislations have forced automotive manufacturers to accept responsibility of the complete life cycle of vehicles. In order to improve the recovery of products at their end-of-life, two strategies can be implemented by the automotive or automotive components manufacturers: either curative action or preventive action (Mathieux et al., 2008). Curative actions may include promotingtechnical and economic development and improvement in recovery processes to be applied to products at the end of their life, while preventive actions are improving, through better design, the product’s recoverability which are called Design for Recycling or Design for Environment. It is hoped that Design for Recycling (DFR), dismantling and environment are becoming an essential aspect of modernautomotive industry and their consideration has become a more important element in the automotive design and development process. McGlothlin and Kroll stated that DFR encompasses three major opportunities that exist during product design. Source
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ60 389 216 118; fax: þ60 389 259 659. E-mail addresses: P52446@eng.ukm.my, firstname.lastname@example.org (T.F. Go),email@example.com (D.A. Wahab). 0959-6526/$ e see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.05.003
reduction refers to better material utilization (McGlothlin and Kroll, 1995); for example, reducing the wall-thickness of parts. This reduces the amount of material requiring disposal. The second opportunity is the speciﬁcation and use of recycled materials. Design...