Present perfect

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PRESENT PERFECT

When do we use the Present Perfect?
Look at the following sentences:

Shakespeare wrote 20 books. Lobo Antunes has written many books. John Lennon went to Canada 3 times.Madonna has been to Canada 3 times. Barack Obama has been the President of the USA for 4 years.  Churchill was the British PM for 8 years.     

When do we use the Present Perfect?
Do we knowwhen these things happened?

I went to Paris in 1997. My mother has been to America twice. I’ve worked in eleven countries. I visited my uncle in Switzerland last year.  We bought a new house lastsummer.  I’ve lost my new watch!!!    

Present Perfect Use
 INDEFINITE PAST 


I went to Paris in 2005.
(Past Simple – specified time in the past)

I have been to Paris twice.(Present Perfect – at some time in my life without being specific)

Examples of indefinite past:
 I have lost my watch. (but we don’t say when)  She has seen that film before. ( again, we don’t saywhen)  President Obama has told his advisors to work on tax cuts. (was it yesterday or last Monday??)

Examples with specific past time expressions:
 I lost my watch last Wednesday at the swimmingpool.  She saw that film with Terry before Christmas.  President Obama had a meeting with his cabinet yesterday and told them he was interested in tax cuts.

Have you ever...?
 To talk aboutone’s life experiences.  A: Have you ever visited Russia? B: No, I haven’t. I’d like to one day.
 A: Have you ever been to New York? B: Yes, I have. I went in 2006.

Present Perfect Use
Unfinished Past  Bill Clinton was the American President from 1992 to 2000.
(his time at the White House finished – Past Simple)

 Barack Obama has been the American President since 2009.
(started inthe past and continues now – Present Perfect)

Examples of unfinished past
 I have lived in this house for 18 years. I love it!  He has worked for this company since 2001 and he is now...
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