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Marketing Research That Won’t Break the Bank

Marketing Research That Won’t Break the Bank
A Practical Guide to Getting the Information You Need

Alan R. Andreasen
Foreword by William A. Smith
The Second Edition of Cheap But Good Marketing Research Prepared with the assistance of the Academy for Educational Development

Copyright © 2002 by Alan R. Andreasen. Published by Jossey-BassA Wiley Imprint 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741 www.josseybass.com No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior writtenpermission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030,(201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, e-mail: permcoordinator@wiley.com. Jossey-Bass books and products are available through most bookstores. To contact Jossey-Bass directly call our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-956-7739, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3986 or fax (317) 572-4002. Jossey-Bass also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears inprint may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Andreasen, Alan R., date. Marketing research that won’t break the bank: a practical guide to getting the information you need/Alan R. Andreasen; foreword by William A. Smith.—1st ed. p. cm.—(The Jossey-Bass nonprofit and public management series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN0-7879-6419-0 (alk. paper) 1. Marketing research. I. Title. II. Series. HF5415.2 .A486 2002 658.8'3—dc21 2002010335 Printed in the United States of America
FIRST EDITION

HB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

The Jossey-Bass Nonprofit and Public Management Series

Contents

Foreword William A. Smith Preface Acknowledgments The Author Part One: Planning a Low-Cost Research Program 1. Myths ofMarketing Research
Research Priests and the Low-Budget Manager • Moving Forward • Organization of the Book • Concluding Comments

xiii xvii xxiii xxv

3

2. Planning a Research Program
Framing the Research Problem • Looking for Opportunity • Research Planning • Serendipitous Research: Recognizing Research Opportunities as You Go • The Decision Opportunity

17

3. Evaluating IndividualResearch Projects
Setting Budgets • Decision-Based Research Budgeting • When to Resist Research

43

ix

x

CONTENTS

4. Backward Marketing Research
How Research Goes Wrong • Turning the Process on Its Head • Conclusion

60

Part Two: Alternative Low-Cost Research Techniques 5. Using Available Data
Archives • Internal Archives • External Archives • Conclusion

75

6. SystematicObservation
Collecting Natural Observations • Controlling the Quality of Natural Observations

107

7. Low-Cost Experimentation
Experimental Design • Types of Experiments • Conclusion

119

8. Low-Cost Survey Designs
Survey Design • Low-Cost Sampling • Other Alternatives for Asking Questions

142

Part Three: Making Low-Cost Research Good Research 9. Producing Valid Data
NonquestionSources of Error • Asking Questions • Questionnaire Design

181

10. All the Statistics You Need to Know (Initially)
Fear of Statistics • Input Data • Descriptive Statistics • Statistical Analysis • Other Multivariate Techniques

198

Part Four: Organizing Low-Cost Research 11. Organization and Implementation on a Shoestring
Financial Assistance • Acquiring Knowledge • Acquiring...
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