Officially Brazil is a Federal Republic - Federative Republic of Brazil – It is composed by 26 states and one federal district. According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), the Brazilian population in 2011 was estimated in 192 million. The current president of Brazil is Dilma Rousseff, the first woman ever to become president in Brazil.On the 31st of October she was elected with almost 56 millions of votes. She took the presidency over from Luiz Inacio Lula Da Silva and started her presidential duties on the 1 January 2011. The Brazilian Republic was proclaimed in 1889 and in 1891 the first Republican Constitution was created where it was established the universal suffrage for citizens. On 1988 The Constitution ofBrazil, brought in their articles, the foundations of the Republic, and they were the following: the human dignity, sovereignty, citizenship, social values and free enterprise.
Settings the scene: Public Policies and Dilma’s Government
Dye (1984) summarizes the definition of public policy as "what the government chooses to do or not to do."
The Public Policy, in Brazil’s case, is defined as the setof actions triggered by the state in federal, state and municipal scales with the aim to meet certain sectors of civil society. They can be developed in partnership with non governmental organizations and with the private sector. The State proposes preventive actions in situations of risk to society through public policy. Despite that, there have been many arguments insinuating that thedecisions regarding the above are most likely to advantage certain sectors and not always geared to the majority population.
According to different sources (CNI (Confederação Nacional da Indústria) 2011 and DN (Dono da Noticia) 2011), Dilma’s Government has been considered the best one in Brazil’s history. At the very beginning of her mandate, Dilma announced the budget cut of 50 billion Reais setting the“tone” of her economic policy. Unlike the former president Lula, Dilma’s policy will be marked by austerity, maintenance of agreed commitments with international investors with regards to the public debts, including an increase in its percentage of pay, and possibilities of capital controls. President Dilma assured that sectors like education, health, defence, and especially social policies wouldnot be affected.
In terms of economic policy the cut represents the containment of credit growth facilitating the acquisition of various items of durables goods such as household appliances, cars, mortgages, etc. The justification for the cut was to combat the unexpected inflation, thus making a policy for the lighter base interest rate avoiding the negative effects of international crisis. It wasa preventive measure. Although this credit contraction derived from the budget cut, which removes resources from public investment, it is also related to the rate of primary surplus, that should remain at 3.1% of GDP in 2011 and an increase of 0.5 percentage point in the Selic rate, from 10.75% to 11.25% that according to Central Bank, represents the beginning of a trend.
CiênciaSem Fronteiras (Science Without Borders) is a program that seeks to promote the consolidation, innovation, expansion and internationalization of science and technology and Brazilian competitiveness through the student exchange and international mobility. The initiative is the result of joint effort between the Ministries of Science, Technology and Innovation, the Ministry of Educationand Departments of Higher Education and Technological Education. The project foresee the use of up to 75,000 scholarships over the period of four years to promote exchanges, so that graduate and postgraduate students can do a training abroad in order to keep in touch with competitive educational systems with regards to technology and innovation. Moreover, the program seeks to attract researchers from...