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Introduction to Mineral Exploration

Second Edition
Edited by Charles J. Moon, Michael K.G. Whateley & Anthony M. Evans With contributions from William L. Barrett Timothy Bell Anthony M. Evans John Milsom Charles J. Moon Barry C. Scott Michael K.G. Whateley

introduction to mineral exploration

Introduction to Mineral Exploration

Second Edition
Edited by Charles J. Moon, MichaelK.G. Whateley & Anthony M. Evans With contributions from William L. Barrett Timothy Bell Anthony M. Evans John Milsom Charles J. Moon Barry C. Scott Michael K.G. Whateley

Copyright © 2006 by Charles J. Moon, Michael K.G. Whateley, and Anthony M. Evans BLACKWELL PUBLISHING 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria3053, Australia The rights of Charles J. Moon, Michael K.G. Whateley, and Anthony M. Evans to be identified as the Authors of this Work have been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. First edition published 1995 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd Second edition published 2006 1 2006 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Introduction to mineral exploration.–2nd ed. / edited by Charles J. Moon, Michael K.G. Whateley & Anthony M.Evans; with contributions from William L. Barrett . . . [et al.]. p. cm. Evans’s appears first on the previous ed. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-1317-5 (pbk. : acid-free paper) ISBN-10: 1-4051-1317-0 (pbk. : acid-free paper) 1. Prospecting. 2. Mining geology. I. Moon, Charles J. II. Whateley, M.K.G. III. Evans, Anthony M. TN270.I66 2006 622′.1—dc22 2005014825 Acatalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Set in 9/11pt Trump Mediaeval by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong Printed and bound in India by Replika Press PVT Ltd The publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices.Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: www.blackwellpublishing.com

Contents

Contributors Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Units, Abbreviations, and Terminology

ix xi xii xiii 1 3 3 3 11 12 13 14 18 1919 25 32 33 33 39 40 45 46 46 52 53 57

Part I – Principles
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4 4.1 4.2 Ore, Mineral Economics, and Mineral Exploration Charles J. Moon and Anthony M. Evans Introduction Mineral economics Important factors in the economic recovery of minerals Structure of the mining industry Some factors governing the choice of explorationareas Rationale of mineral exploration Further reading The Mineralogy of Economic Deposits Anthony M. Evans Introduction Mineralogical investigations Further reading Mineral Deposit Geology and Models Anthony M. Evans and Charles J. Moon Nature and morphology of orebodies Wall rock alteration Geological models of mineral deposits Further reading Summary of Chapters 1, 2, and 3 Appendix: mineraldeposit model classification of Cox and Singer (1986) Reconnaissance Exploration Charles J. Moon and Michael K.G. Whateley Exploration planning Desk studies and reconnaissance

vi

CONTENTS

4.3 4.4 4.5 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5

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