with answers John Eastwood
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP Oxford New York Auckland Bangkok Buenos Aires Cape Town Chennai Dar es Salaam Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi Sao Paulo Shanghai Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto withan associated company in Berlin Oxford and Oxford English are trade marks of Oxford University Press. ISBN 0 19 431369 7 (with answers) ISBN 0 19 431427 8 (with answers with CD-ROM) ISBN 0 19 431370 0 (without answers) © Oxford University Press 1992, 1999 First published 1992 (reprinted nine times) Second edition 1999 Tenth impression 2002 Printing ref. (last digit): 6 5 4 3 2 1 No unauthorizedphotocopying All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Oxford University Press. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hiredout, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
Thanks The author and publisher would like to thank: all the teachers in the United Kingdom and Italy who discussed this book in the early stages of itsdevelopment; the teachers and students of the following schools who used and commented on the pilot units of the first edition: The Bell School of Languages, Bowthorpe Hall, Norwich The Eckersley School of English, Oxford Eurocentre, Brighton Eurocentre, London Victoria King's School of English, Bournemouth Academia Lacunza International House, San Sebastian, Spain the teachers and students of thefollowing schools who used and commented on the first edition of this book: Anglo World, Oxford Central School of English, London Linguarama, Birmingham Thomas Lavelle for his work on the American English appendix; Rod Bolitho for his valuable advice on what students need from a grammar book.
The author would also like to thank: Stewart Melluish, David Lott and Helen Ward of Oxford University Pressfor their expertise and their commitment in guiding this project from its earliest stages to the production of this new edition; Sheila Eastwood for all her help and encouragement.
Illustrated by Richard Coggan Designed by Richard Morris, Stonesfield Design Typeset by Tradespools Ltd., Frome, Somerset Printed in China
Introduction page vi Key to symbols vii Starting test viii 28 2930 31 32 33 Will be doing 70 Will have done and was going to 72 Review of the future 74 Test 7: The future 76 The verb have 78 Short forms, e.g it's, don't 80 Emphatic do 82
Words and sentences
1 2 3 Word classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc 2 Sentence structure: subject, verb, object, etc 4 Direct and indirect objects 6
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2526 27 The present continuous 8 The present simple 10 Present continuous or simple? 12 State verbs and action verbs 14 Test 1: Present tenses 16 The past simple 18 The past continuous 20 Past continuous or simple? 22 Test 2: Past simple and past continuous 24 The present perfect (1) 26 The present perfect (2): just, already, yet; for and since 28 The present perfect (3): ever, this week, etc 30Present perfect or past simple? (1) 32 Present perfect or past simple? (2) 34 Test 3: Present perfect and past simple 36 The present perfect continuous 38 Present perfect continuous or simple? 40 The past perfect 42 Review of the past simple, continuous and perfect 44 The past perfect continuous 46 Test 4: Past and perfect tenses 48 Review of present and past tenses 50 Test 5: Present and past...