Chapter’s 1 and 2
First Steps in Offensive and Defensive Close Combat
The purpose of this text book is to present the reader with both offensive and defensive examples of close combat.
A very wide spectrum of techniques and tactics will be described in this text book. The original purpose of this
approach was to allow the reader to selecttechniques that suit them personally and also meet their operational
The techniques described and illustrated in this text book have been used in general warfare by Western states from the
early 1900's onwards. These armies have always used close combat training programs for two main reasons;
First, close combat training promotes fighting spirit and ruthless efficiency.
•Second, close combat training programs are the solid foundations for self confidence on the battle field.
Self Defense. The amount of physical force used in self defense must be the minimum necessary to protect
either you or others. This degree of force should allow you to either escape ward off or neutralize an attack.
Close Combat. To fight and oppose with little regard paid tominimum force requirements. The amount of force
used will depend on the operational aims. This may include neutralizing, disabling, capturing and killing the enemy.
Whenever possible, text book and video studies must be complemented with "hands on training" from a competent
instructor. First hand accounts from combat veterans will also give more credence to the training program.Standing Combat
Join a boxing, karate or kung fu club and gain valuable contact experience. This must include the practice of timing
hits, judging distance, feinting, counter attacking and closing in for grappling techniques. Do not spend to long
learning the one style. Focusing on the one style will create a mind set for that particular style. For example, focusing
on boxing may cause you tomiss the chance to either kick or throw your opponent when that opportunity arises.
Join a club that specializes in judo, jujitsu, sombo or wrestling. Here you will learn the fundamentals of balance, break
falling, strangling, choking, limb locking, the mount, the guard and escapes. A good substitute for sound practical
hands on instruction in these areas does not exist.
When youare fighting more than one opponent, grappling must be avoided. You will limit your chances of survival if
you allow yourself to be tied up by either applying or being caught in body holds or arm lock.
A competent ground fighter can be defeated by any of the following quick and lethal tactics; gripping the ear and
chopping it off with the free hand, poking out eyes, chopping the front of thethroat or eyes, biting off ears, noses and
Technical proficiency in either boxing or wrestling or any sport combat is not a requirement for battle field combat.
Half a brick or the edge of an entrenching tool to the nape of the neck will work much faster than many years of karate
training. The application of these tactics requires nothing more than the will to survive.
Safety RulesClose combat training will, at some stage, incur physical injury. This is a fact of life in all areas of combat training.
Prior to any combat training, commanders are obliged to predict the expected loss rate from training accidents. This
will ensure that the program starts with sufficient personnel to offset the training losses.
Safety rules will help to reduce the accident rate in your trainingprogram.
1. Basic training dress must include rubber soled boots, combat jacket and trousers and finally, protective body guards.
Always use commercial protective equipment that meets your training requirements.
2. Prior to any training session, a thorough safety check must be made of all dress and equipment. Always check the
soles of all footwear and all clothing to ensure that...