A historia das leis bancarias nos estados unidos em ingles

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The present American baking structure is a consequence of a century-long effort by the U.S. government and its people to ensure a safe, sound, and competitive national banking system. Its function is to support the citizens, communities, and economy of the United States. The laws that govern this essential part of the American capitalistic society have been changed and molded constantly to fitthe requirements and strains of each time period. The money supply and control in the early colony years was largely in the hands of England. The first Acts of Congress geared towards the establishment of a stable banking system suffered pressures from various conflicting parties and were modified throughout the years. Wars, both in the country and worldwide, have influenced the development ofbanking due to the need for financing and active government participation. The tendencies for government control have not occurred quickly, however, today they are more prevalent than ever.

British merchants provided the majority of the sources of money and credit during the colonial period of American history (1607-1783). The American colony served as a superb opportunity for British merchants. Itwas a new market for the growing British economy during the time. Colonial importers and wholesalers relied on credit from British suppliers while rural merchants received credit from importers and wholesalers in the port cities and, finally, consumers received credit from the retailers. (McCusker and Menard, 80n; Perkins, 24).
After the Declaration of Independence, the first commercial bankreceived a charter of incorporation: The Bank of North America, in 1781. This was a result of a resolution by the Continental Congress. However, there was doubt regarding the power of the Congress to permit the establishment of a bank. Thus, the Bank of North America also obtained charters from state authorities: the Pennsylvania legislature. In 1784, the Bank of Massachusetts and the Bank of NewYork were also formed. The primary function of these and later commercial banks was the making of short-term loans, which they did either by issuing their own bank notes or by creating a deposit in the name of the borrower (opening an account to the person's credit) and dispersing checks to draw against it. Therefore, banks had to maintain adequate reserves in order to pay on demand. Numerous bankswere forced into bankruptcy because they over expanded their loans and discounts (Fischer, 9).
In most states of the early federal union, bank organizers needed special permission from the state government to open and operate. For a while, the Bank of the United States also provided an additional layer of oversight (Fact). However, many were troubled by the fact that two-thirds of the bankstock was held by British interests. These critics, working with agrarian opponents of the bank, succeeded in preventing the renewal of the charter in 1811, and the First Bank went out of operation (Houghton).
Soon, however, problems associated with the financing of the War of 1812 led to a revival of interest in a central bank, and in 1816, the Second Bank of the United States wasestablished with functions very much like the first. However, this period (1811-1816) without a national bank, led to a large increase in the number of state banks. These were formed largely without restrictions or guidelines. The provisions of the charter of the Second Bank required the establishment of branches. By the fall of 1817, 19 branches in 14 different states were organized. The difficulties intransportation and communication at the time resulted in significant losses at these various branch locations. Local directors also often defied directions from headquarters and carried out their own policies. This widespread mismanagement influenced the onset of the panic of 1819 (Fischer, 12).
Popular resentment led to efforts by several states to restrict the Bank's operations, but in...