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In: Journal of Universal Computer Science 3:8, August 1997

Information Technology for Knowledge Management
Uwe M. Borghoff
Rank Xerox Research Centre, Grenoble Laboratory
6, chemin de Maupertuis. F-38240 Meylan, France
E-mail: borghoff@grenoble.rxrc.xerox.com

Remo Pareschi
Rank Xerox Research Centre, Grenoble Laboratory
6, chemin de Maupertuis. F-38240 Meylan, France
E-mail:pareschi@grenoble.rxrc.xerox.com

Abstract: Knowledge has been lately recognized as one of the most important assets of
organizations. Can information technology help the growth and the sustainment of
organizational knowledge? The answer is yes, if care is taken to remember that IT here is just
a part of the story (corporate culture and work practices being equally relevant) and that the
informationtechnologies best suited for this purpose should be expressly designed with
knowledge management in view. This special issue of the Journal of Universal Computer
Science contains a selection of papers from the First Conference on Practical Applications of
Knowledge Management. Each paper describes a specific type of information technology
suitable for the support of different aspects ofknowledge management.
Key Words: knowledge management, information technology, knowledge life-cycle,
knowledge work processes, corporate memories, information filtering
Category: A.1, H.4.m, I.2.1, K.m

1 Knowledge Management
Managers, consultants, IT professionals and customers believe that they have finally
discovered what makes organizations work: knowledge—that invisible force that
propelsthe most successful companies to stock market values which far exceed the
visible assets of their financial balance sheet. Where does this knowledge come
from? The financial balance sheet, based on such tangible assets as capital and
equity, does not tell us. Yet this is what stock market investors look for when they
decide to raise the market value of a company—they invest in the specificknowhow of the company to produce future cash flows. At its simplest, the knowledge
movement in organizational thinking is about refining rules of thumb used by
investors into techniques and methodologies for the knowledge auditing of
organizations. This new view of organizations should help investors to make their
choices in a more informed way by basing them on a sound, systematic ground. -2-

More than that, it should aid managers to identify the real weaknesses and strengths
of the organizations they run, and to set up the priorities in order to make them
grow.
Thus, the knowledge movement has proposed to put knowledge on the balance sheet
in the form of intangible assets that account for organizations’ intellectual capital.
Such intangibles include: employees’ competence;the internal structure of
organizations, given by their patents, their own models, concepts and processes,
their administrative system and IT infrastructure; their external structure, given by
the relationships they have developed with customers and suppliers, their brand
names, trademarks, image and reputation (Sveiby 1997). Some companies, most
famous Skandia, a Swedish financial servicesfirm, have started to develop
knowledge auditing methodologies and to publish an intellectual balance sheet.
But there is more than this. With respect to earlier, more scientific approaches to
knowledge, from western epistemology to artificial intelligence, the knowledge
movement has brought the new awareness that organizational knowledge is
something inherently fluid and elusive, soinextricably linked with humans that
people very often take it away once they leave the place; something that defeats
being captured by rules and formulas and that comes in many different shapes and
forms, one form dynamically transmuting into another. In particular, we have
learned to distinguish between explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge (Nonaka and
Takeuchi 1995).
Explicit knowledge is...
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