Simple Present A: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak? action in the present taking place once, never or several times
facts actions taking place one after another
action set by a timetable or schedule always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually
if sentences type I (If I talk, …)
PresentProgressive A: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking? action taking place in the moment of speaking
action taking place only for a limited period of time
action arranged forthe future at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now
Simple Past A: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak? action in the past taking place once, never or severaltimes
actions taking place one after another
action taking place in the middle of another action yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
if sentence type II (If I talked, …)Past Progressive A: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking? action going on at a certain time in the past
actions taking place at the same time
action in the past thatis interrupted by another action when, while, as long as
Present Perfect Simple A: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken? putting emphasis on the result
action that is stillgoing on
action that stopped recently
finished action that has an influence on the present
action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking already, ever,just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
Present Perfect Progressive A: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking? putting emphasis on the course orduration (not the result)
action that recently stopped or is still going on
finished action that influenced the present all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week