Diane Larsen-Freeman is Professor of Education, Professor of Linguistics, and Director of the English Language Institute at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. She is also a Distinguished Senior Faculty Fellow at the School for International Training in Brattleboro, Vermont. Dr. Larsen-Freeman has been aconference speaker in over 50 countries of the world and has published over 100 articles in her areas of interest. Her Thomson/Heinle books include The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL TeacherAs Course (1999; co-authored with Marianne Celce-Murcia), From Grammar to Grammaring (2003) and the fourth edition of Grammar Dimensions: Form, Meaning, and Use (forthcoming, Series Director).
From 1980-1985, Dr.Larsen-Freeman was Editor of the journal Language Learning. In 1997, Dr. Larsen-Freeman was inducted into the Vermont Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1999, she was selected by ESL Magazine as one of Athe ESL pioneers.A In 2000, she received the lifetime achievement award from Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
• Along the years, many different teaching methods have been developed whether to facestudents needs or to match the requirements of a new administration, all of them claiming to be the best option to teach English. Let’s remember some of them. . .
• Total Physical Response (TPR).
• The Silent Way.
• Community Language Learning.
• Whole Language.
• Multiple Intelligences.
• Neurolinguistic Programming.
• The Lexical Approach.
• Competency-Based LanguageTeaching.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Developed by James Asher, TPR is a language learning method based on the coordination of speech and action. It is linked to the trace theory of memory, which holds that the more often or intensively a memory connection is traced, the stronger the memory will be. There are six principles Asher elaborates:
1. Second language learning is parallel to firstlanguage learning and should reflect the same naturalistic processes
2. Listening should develop before speaking
3. Children respond physically to spoken language, and adult learners learn better if they do that too
4. Once listening comprehension has been developed, speech develops naturally and effortlessly out of it.
5. Adults should use right-brain motor activities, while the left hemispherewatches and learns
6. Delaying speech reduces stress.
• Some of the objectives of Total Physical Response are:
– Teaching oral proficiency at a beginning level
– Using comprehension as a means to speaking
– Using action-based drills in the imperative form
• TPR uses a sentence-based grammatical syllabus.
• TPR main learning techniques and activities are based on situations where acommand is given in the imperative and the students obey the command.
The Silent Way
Caleb Gattegno founded "The Silent Way" as a method for language learning in the early 70s, sharing many of the same essential principles as the cognitive code and making good use of the theories underlying Discovery Learning.
• Some of his basic theories were:
• "teaching should be subordinated to...