Livro renascimento ao romantismo

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The painters who followed Giotto lacked his genius- they did not possess his incisiveness, his ability to compose, and his dramatic force. They went in for rich details, and overloaded their pictures with charming non-essentials. Cennino, in his famous Craftsman's Handbook (early –what fifteenth century), the only important theoretical treatise of the time, recommended copying from nature as themost perfect guide, though he also recommended the study of good masters. But for a century Italian painters looked more to Giotto and to other earlier painnters than to nature. So while it is true, as Poliziano later wrote of Giotto, ''Lo, I am he by whom painting was restored to life, '' no great steps in advance of Giotto's style were taken until the time of Masaccio in the early fifteenthcentury, Thus, Niccolo Pisano and Giotto were both great innovators in style, but they had few worthy successors until a number of generations after their time. At the opening of the fifteenth century, Italian architecture, painting, and sculpture were still Gothic. But Jacopo della Quercia and Ghiberti were already at work in a manner that was soon to mark a great change in sculptural style. In theyea 1400, Brunelleschi was twenty-three years old, Ghiberti was twenty-two, and Donatello was but a boy of fourteen. Masaccio was born the next year (1401), and within the following half-century these men revolutionized artistic styles not only for Italy but ultimately fot the whole of Europe.
Ghiberti, like many artists of the fifteenth century in Italy., was trained as a goldsmith and later,besides filling commissions in sculpture, became a consultant for architectural work, a fresco painter, and a designer of stained glass windows. He tells us in his rambling Commentaries how he achieved his style as a sculptor: ‘’ I sought to investigate the way nature functions in art; how images come to the eye. I strove to imitate nature as closely as I could, and with all the perspective I couldproduce. “ But he also tells us how carefully he studied the style of Roman figures and reliefs, and he speaks of one Roman sculpture: ‘’ Our tongues cannot express the skill, the art, the mastery with which it was done.’’ In his principal works, the two sets of bronze doors for the Baptistery at Florence, Ghiberti set models that deeply affected the style of both sculpture and painting. In thefirst set of doors he made, the interest centers in the grace and naturalness of the compositions, which are set against flat backgrounds, and the brilliant and realistic modeling of the individual figures. These are partly in a late Gothic and partly in a Roman style; their beauty lies in Ghiberti’s skill in giving energy and life to figures and groups that are so small. In the scenes from the OldTestament on the final set of doors he made for the Baptistery, Ghiberti carries much further his skill in composition and in modeling separate figures, and he adds a brilliant use of perspective in backgrounds of landscape and architecture. And to heighten the sense of depth, he uses a series of planes gradually diminishing in relief. It is, of course, easier for the sculptor than for thepainter to obtain a three-dimensional effect- what Berenson has called ‘’tactile values’’ and Roger Fry ‘’plasticity’’-because in sculpture the figures, even in a relief, stand in real space and real light. But by the greatest skill in modeling and grouping his figures, and in the handling of his backgrounds in his later works, Ghiberti achieved effects of depth and space that fascinated sculptors andpainters, and deeply affected the style of both.
While Ghiberti was turning sculpture both toward classical grace and toward a style of three-dimensional representation, Brunelleschi was creating a new architectural style, Donatello a more varied and virile style of sculpture, and young Masaccio was inventing a new manner of painting. We know something of how these men were trained. Inside the...