Effect of a denture cleanser on the concentration of volatile
sulphur compounds and denture bioﬁlm in institutionalised
Viviane Maia Barreto de Oliveira, Sılvia Carneiro de Lucena, Renata Cunha Matheus
Rodrigues Garcia and Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury
Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazildoi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2009.00341.x
Effect of a denture cleanser on the concentration of volatile sulphur compounds and denture bioﬁlm
in institutionalised elderly
Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a denture cleanser in reducing the concentration of volatile
sulphur compounds (VSC) and its antimicrobial action.
Background: Micro-organisms from the denture bioﬁlm can cause local and systemic disease and halitosis.Denture cleansers are important adjuncts in oral care, but there is limited investigation on their effect
in malodour compounds.
Material and methods: Nineteen institutionalised elderly who wore at least an upper denture were
selected; their VSC concentrations were measured and the denture bioﬁlm was collected. In phase 1, the
subjects wore their old denture and data were collected before(B0) and after 7(A1), 14(A2), 28(A3) days of
continuous daily use of the denture cleanser. In phase 2, new dentures were inserted and measurements
were made at 30(A1.1), 60(A2.2), 90(A3.3) days of treatment.
Results: The VSC concentration increased from B0 to A1 (p < 0.05), but no differences were found for the
others intervals of times. Total micro-organism data did not show a statisticaldifference between times in
Phase I, but in Phase II, there was a statistical difference (p < 0.05) and a progressive re-colonisation was
Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it was concluded that the denture cleanser had no antimicrobial effect and VSC levels were not reduced.
Keywords: denture cleansers, denture bioﬁlm, halitosis, volatile sulphur compounds.
Accepted 29 June2009
The elderly population is growing and this has led
to an increasing number of people living in longterm care institutions. Epidemiological studies have
found a signiﬁcant number of denture wearers
among these patients but most of them fail to keep
their prosthesis clean1–6. This has been attributed to
various diseases, dementia7, poor dexterity8 and
their dependence onothers’ assistance to carry out
their own oral care procedures9.
However, the importance of clean dentures
should not be underestimated as it is a key factor in
maintaining the health of the oral cavity in
edentulous people and also for their quality of life.
Metabolic products and exotoxins produced by
micro-organism in denture bioﬁlm can irritate oral
tissue and promote inﬂammatoryalterations, such
as denture stomatitis10. Moreover, micro-organisms associated with systemic diseases have been
cultured from contaminated prostheses, suggesting
that the bioﬁlm may be a reservoir for disseminated
infections with gastrointestinal and pleuropulmonary involvement11,12.
Poor denture hygiene may also contribute to
halitosis which results from the production of
malodourouscompounds, especially volatile sulphur compounds (VSC)13, by oral bacteria that
Ó 2009 The Authors
Journal compilation Ó 2009 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S, Gerodontology 2011; 28: 134–139
Effect of denture cleanser on malodor
degrade food debris, cells, saliva and blood within
the oral cavity. Tongue coating may be its main
origin14,15, but the use of dentures isalso a significant source of bad breath16 as it presents additional
sites and an environment to support the growth of
micro-organism17. Moreover, Goldberg 18 isolated a
wide range of odour-producing organisms and
found a high prevalence (48%) of Enterobacteriaceae
species among denture wearers, suggesting that
these bacteria may play a role in denture malodour.
It is reasonable to presume...