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ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS FOR VECTORS AND TENSORS IN CARTESIAN COORDINATES
l

(s is a scalar; v and w are vectors; T is a tensor; dot or cross operations enclosed within parentheses are scalars, those enclosed in brackets are vectors)

Note: The above operations may be generalized to cylindrical coordinates by replacing (x, y, z ) by (r, 6, z), and to spherical coordinates by replacing (x, y, zby ( r , 6, 4). ) Descriptions of curvilinear coordinates are given in Figures 1.2-2, A.6-1, A.8-1, and A.8-2.

**.DIFFERENTIAL OPERATIONS FOR SCALARS, VECTORS, AND TENSORS IN CARTESIAN COORDINATES

[V

x v],= - - dy dz
dv,
dz

dv,

dvy

dv, [ V x v ] =--Y dz

dvZ
dx

[V

x

v],

=

dvy ax - dux aY

-

dv, dvy (V.v)=-+-+dx dy

d2vz d2v, d2vZ +-az2 = [V2v], [VVv],= ax2 dvx dvx dvx [v Vv],= vx - + vY - + v, -dx dy dz

3

[v' Vv],= vx- + v

dvz dx

Y

-

dv, dy

~(v,v,) a(vyvx) d(v,vX) [V vv], = - ------ + dx + dy dz
a(vXvy) a(vYvy) ~(v,v,) [V .vv],= - dy dx +-+dz
[V vv],= ---- +-+-

a(vXvz) d(vyvz) ~(v,v,) dx dy dz

(T :V v ) =

dvx dux dux rxx- + r - + rxzdx dy dz

Note: the differential operations may not be simply generalized tocurvilinear coordinates; see Tables A.7-2 and A.7-3.

+

+ v, dvz dz

-

This Page Intentionally Left Blank Intentionally Left

Transport Phenomena
Second Edition

R. Byron Bird Warren E. Stewart Edwin N. Lightfoot
Chemical Engineering Department University of Wisconsin-Madison

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
New York / Chichester / Weinheim / Brisbane / Singapore / Toronto Acquisitions Editor Wayne Anderson Marketing Manager Katherine Hepburn Senior Production Editor Petrina Kulek Director Design Madelyn Lesure Illustration Coodinator Gene Aiello This book was set in Palatino by UG / GGS Information Services, Inc. and printed and bound by Hamilton Printing. The cover was printed by Phoenix. This book is printed on acid free paper.
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Copyright O 2002 John Wiley & Sons,Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through paymentof the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (508)750-8400,fax (508)750-4470.Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, (212)850-6011,fax (212)850-6008,E-Mail: PERMREQ@WILEY.COM. To order books or for customer serviceplease call 1-800-CALL WILEY (225-5945).

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bird, R. Byron (Robert Byron), 1924Transport phenomena / R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart, Edwin N. Lightfoot.-2nd ed. p. cm. Includes indexes. ISBN 0-471-41077-2 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Fluid dynamics. 2. Transport theory. I. Stewart, Warren E., 192411. Lightfoot, Edwin N., 1925111. Title. QA929.B5 2001530.13'86~21 2001023739
ISBN 0-471-41077-2 Printed in the United States of America

Preface

W h i l e momentum, heat, and mass transfer developed independently as branches of classical physics long ago, their unified study has found its place as one of the fundamental engineering sciences. This development, in turn, less than half a century old, continues to grow and to find applications in newfields such as biotechnology, microelectronics, nanotechnology, and polymer science. Evolution of transport phenomena has been so rapid and extensive that complete coverage is not possible. While we have included many representative examples, our main emphasis has, of necessity, been on the fundamental aspects of this field. Moreover, we have found in discussions with colleagues that transport...
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