S. Pérez, C. J. Renedo, A. Ortiz, M. Mañana, D. Silió, J Peredo Department of Electric and Energy Engineering ESTI Industriales y Telecomunicación, University of Cantabria Av Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain) Phone: +34 942 201382, fax: +34 942 201385, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
In this worka power characterization of adult stages of the species Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens has been made. The study has been made in six different plantations in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at a latitude 43º28'N, and a longitude 3º48'W. The region has approximately 30,000 Ha dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus. After the collection of samples they were weighed, analyzed andburned, resulting a mean net calorific value of 17,384 kJ/kg and 17,927 kJ/kg for the E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences that the crop of these species would suppose for the region of Cantabria were analyzed.
(wood, firewoods) and other social and cultural services (tourism). This way, apart of the decisive contribution to theenvironment protection, it supposes a considerable help to the socioeconomic development of rural areas, as much fixing population as generating alternative jobs. In this article the biomass considered has forest origin, namely different species of Eucalyptus in the North of Spain, Cantabria.
2. Forest biomasa in Cantabria
Biomass, eucalyptus globulus, eucalyptus nitens, energy crops,forest wastes, net calorific value. The bioclimatic and geographic characteristics of this region form an optimal scenario for the development of forest species. The Cantabrian forests suppose more than 2/3 of its territory, where almost 60% of them are in use. This supposes a great forest surface that is still susceptible of growing in an important way.
Table 1. Forest surface in Cantabria UseForest with trees Forest without trees Total forest Total Cantabria Hectares (Ha) 209,611 145,201 359,458 532,139
Until the twentieth century the power sources that have been allowing the development of the humanity have been of fossil origin. Spain, like many others countries in the European Union, does not have great reserves of petroleum or natural gas, which means a need ofexternal energy around the 75% of the total demand. From our point of view, this situation justifies widely the study and development of alternative power plants whose raw material is a local resource. In this way, the power dependency would be reduced while the use of these energies will suppose a great environmental benefit. Biomass is any substance of biological origin. The forest biomass isdefined as the existing organic matter in a forest ecosystem, above and below the soil, although the useful one is only the superficial part. In the power sector, the biomass term is used when this is susceptible of being used like fuel. The natural areas generate very significant environmental benefits (protection of the soil, fight against the erosion, defence against floods, carbon drain), economicgoods
The average wood generate annually in the area are 550,000 m3, where 93% correspond to Eucalyptus, 6% to Pine Radiate and 1% to other native species. These data reveal that the predominant production are species of fast growth, as it is the Eucalyptus. Considering that 95,000 Tn of wastes are abandoned annually in the Cantabrian plantations, this amount justified widely the study madehere, where the two more common species of Eucalyptus were characterized (globulus and nitens). The biomass samples were collected in six plantations that were considered representative in the region, Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Location of the plantations in Cantabria.
3. Species considered
The conventional use of the Eucalyptus is the paper industry, due to the high content in cellulose of its wood....