Environmental and food safety management systems, according to iso 14001 and iso 22000 in fish processing plants: experiences, critical factors and possible future strategies.

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Alessandra J. Weyandta, Stella Regina Reis da Costab, Maria Leonor Nunesc, Arlene Gaspard,

a INMETRO, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, (weyandt.alessandra@gmail.com)
b UFRRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (stella@ufrrj.br)
c IPIMAR, Lisboa, Portugal (mlnunes@ipimar.pt)
b UFRRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (arlene@ufrrj.br)

In order to keep themselves competitive and to protect their brands andreputation, the fish processing plants need to manage risks, show corporate responsibilities and abide by the demands of their clients. In this context the ISO 22000 proves to be an important tool for food safety management. Riding on ISO 14001 in reference to environmental management, it could contribute to the sustainable development of food industries activities. The aim of this paper was toanalyze the fishing industry, a sector of strategic importance to the food safety of the entire population; the impact and synergism of the simultaneous adoption of these standards, proposing suggestions to minimize critical factors singled out for more efficient implementation of the said standards. The adopted methodology was multiple case studies, having analyzed plants located in Portugal and Spainwith integrated management systems (IMS) already implanted. The results showed that all of the five analyzed plants have set quality and food safety management systems, however only three of them have EMS (Environmental Management Systems). These companies showed good practices aimed at the preservation of the environment as opposed to the plants that did not have EMS. It was observed a greatergain in time with simultaneous implementation. As benefits of the adoption of the IMS the plants identified an increase in sales and satisfaction on the part of their employees. Regarding the critical factors, the analyzed plants pointed to: ``interpretation of the standards``, ``the empowerment and valuing of people``, and “industry sensitivity towards the implantation of the IMS``.Considering the importance of standards ISO 14001 and ISO 22000, and the results observed, it can be concluded that the integrated implementation of these standards allied to the measures for overcoming the critical factors presents great potential for the increase of competitiveness of fish processing plants.

© 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of [nameorganizer]

Keywords: ISO 14001; ISO 22000; environmental management; management of food safety; integrated management system.

1. Introduction
In order to be competitive the fish production chain should consider the new market concepts which demand attention to the standards of international quality, food safety and environmental sustainability. These new requirements must, therefore, bepart of the strategic evaluation of the sector, for the management of its own viable capabilities and survival of their undertaking. (MEDEIROS, 2003).
According to FAO (2009), the quality of food products is of the utmost importance for the industries of this sector and also for the public health authorities. It was possible to estimate that in The United States of America there are possibly morethan 80 million cases of ``illnesses`` originating from food intake and the cost of these illnesses yearly is very high indeed. The economic losses due to deterioration are seldom quantified but it is presumed to be that one quarter of the world´s food distribution is lost due to microbial activity (IVANKIU, 2008).
Added to this, there is an international tendency on the part of the consumersto worry not only with the quality of the products but also with the responsibility that the producers have in the elaboration of their products, paying more for products that come out of companies which do not cause environmental harm (SOBRAL et al., 2004). The management of the environment and that of food safety fits very well in this new concept of worldly society. Companies search for a...
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