SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED
MERRIE BERGMANN Smith College
JAMES MOOR Dartmouth College
JACK NELSON University of Washington, Tacoma
Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York
San Francisco St. Louis Bangkok Bogotá Caracas Kuala Lumpur
Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi
Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney TaipeiToronto
Solutions to Selected Exercises in
THE LOGIC BOOK
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SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 1
SOLUTIONSTO CHAPTER 2
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 3
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 4
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 5
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 6
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 7
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 8
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 9
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 10
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 11
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED EXERCISES
Section 1.3E1.a. This sentence does have a truth-value and does fall within the scope
of this text. It is false if by ‘second President of the United States’ we mean
the second person to hold the ofﬁce of President as established by the Constitution of the United States. However, it is true if we mean the second person to bear the title ‘President of the United States’, as the Articles of Confederation, whichpredate the Constitution, established a loose union of states
whose ﬁrst and only president, John Hanson, did bear the title ‘President of
the United States.
c. This is a request or command, as such it is neither true nor false,
and therefore does not fall within the scope of this text.
e. This sentence does have a truth-value (it is true), and does fall
within the scope of this text.
g.This sentence does have a truth-value and does fall within the scope
of this text. It is false, as Bill Clinton is the President who immediately preceded George W. Bush.
i. This sentence is neither true nor false, for if it were true, then sentence m would be true, and if m is true then what it says, that m is false, is
also true. And no sentence can be both true and false. See the answer toexercise m below.
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED EXERCISES ON PP. 10–12
k. This sentence gives advice and is neither true nor false. Hence it
does not fall within the scope of this text.
m. This appears to be a straightforward, unproblematic claim. But it is
not. In fact, it embodies a well-known paradox. For if what the sentence says is
true, then the sentence itself is, as is claimed, false.And if what the sentence says
is false, then the sentence is not false and therefore is true. So the sentence is
true if and only if it is false, an impossibility. This is an example of the paradox
of self-reference. We exclude paradoxical sentences from the scope of this text.
2.a. When Mike, Sharon, Sandy, and Vicky are all out of the ofﬁce no
important decisions get made.
Mike is off...
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