Oracle9i: Advanced SQL
Student Guide • Volume 1
40058GC11 Production 1.1 November 2001 D34074
Copyright © Oracle Corporation, 2000, 2001. All rights reserved. This documentation contains proprietary information of Oracle Corporation. It is provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and is also protected by copyright law.Reverse engineering of the software is prohibited. If this documentation is delivered to a U.S. Government Agency of the Department of Defense, then it is delivered with Restricted Rights and the following legend is applicable: Restricted Rights Legend Use, duplication or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions for commercial computer software and shall be deemed to be RestrictedRights software under Federal law, as set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of DFARS 252.227-7013, Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software (October 1988). This material or any portion of it may not be copied in any form or by any means without the express prior written permission of Oracle Corporation. Any other copying is a violation of copyright law and may result in civil and/or criminalpenalties. If this documentation is delivered to a U.S. Government Agency not within the Department of Defense, then it is delivered with “Restricted Rights,” as defined in FAR 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, including Alternate III (June 1987). The information in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems in the documentation, please report them in writing toEducation Products, Oracle Corporation, 500 Oracle Parkway, Box SB-6, Redwood Shores, CA 94065. Oracle Corporation does not warrant that this document is error-free. Oracle and all references to Oracle products are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation. All other products or company names are used for identification purposes only, and may be trademarks of their respective owners.Technical Contributors and Reviewers
Josephine Turner Martin Alvarez Anna Atkinson Don Bates Marco Berbeek Andrew Brannigan
Michael Gerlach Sharon Gray Rosita Hanoman Mozhe Jalali Sarah Jones Charbel Khouri Christopher Lawless Diana Lorentz Nina Minchen Cuong Nguyen Daphne Nougier Patrick Odell Laura Pezzini Stacey Procter Maribel Renau Bryan Roberts Helen RobertsonSunshine Salmon Casa Sharif Bernard Soleillant Craig Spoonemore Ruediger Steffan Karla Villasenor Andree Wheeley Lachlan Williams
I Introduction Course Objectives I-2 Course Overview I-3
Using SET Operators Objectives 1-2 The SET Operators 1-3 Tables Used in This Lesson 1-4 The UNION Operator 1-7 Using the UNION Operator 1-8 The UNION ALL Operator 1-10Using the UNION ALL Operator 1-11 The INTERSECT Operator 1-12 Using the INTERSECT Operator 1-13 The MINUS Operator 1-14 SET Operator Guidelines 1-16 The Oracle Server and SET Operators 1-17 Matching the SELECT Statements 1-18 Controlling the Order of Rows 1-20 Summary 1-21 Practice 1 Overview 1-22 Oracle9i Datetime Functions Objectives 2-2 TIME ZONES 2-3 Oracle9i Datetime Support 2-4 TZ_OFFSET 2-6CURRENT_DATE 2-8 CURRENT_TIMESTAMP 2-9 LOCALTIMESTAMP 2-10 DBTIMEZONE and SESSIONTIMEZONE 2-11 EXTRACT 2-12 TIMESTAMP Conversion Using FROM_TZ 2-13 STRING To TIMESTAMP Conversion Using TO_TIMESTAMP and TO_TIMESTAMP_TZ 2-14 Time Interval Conversion with TO_YMINTERVAL 2-15 Summary 2-16 Practice 2 Overview 2-17
Enhancements to the GROUP BY Clause Objectives 3-2 Review of GroupFunctions 3-3 Review of the GROUP BY Clause 3-4 Review of the HAVING Clause 3-5 GROUP BY with ROLLUP and CUBE Operators ROLLUP Operator 3-7 ROLLUP Operator Example 3-8 CUBE Operator 3-9 CUBE Operator: Example 3-10 GROUPING Function 3-11 GROUPING Function: Example 3-12 GROUPING SETS 3-13 GROUPING SETS: Example 3-15 Composite Columns 3-17 Composite Columns: Example 3-19 Concatenated Groupings 3-21...
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