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The term measurement traceability is used to refer to an unbroken chain of comparisons relating an instrument's measurements to a known standard. Calibration to a traceable standardcan be used to determine an instrument's bias, precision, and accuracy.
In many countries, national standards for weights and measures are maintained by a National Measurement Institute (NMI) whichprovides the highest level of standards for the calibration / measurement traceability infrastructure in that country. Examples of government agencies include the National Physical Laboratory, UK (NPL)the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the USA, and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. As defined by NIST, "Traceability of measurement requires the establishment ofan unbroken chain of comparisons to stated references each with a stated uncertainty."

In logistics, traceability refers to the capability for tracing goods along the distributionchain on a batch number or series number basis. Traceability is an important aspect for example in the automotive industry, where it makes recalls possible, or in the food industry where itcontributes to food safety.
The international standards organization EPCglobal under GS1 has ratified the EPCglobal Network standards (esp. the EPC Information Services EPCIS standard) which codify the syntaxand semantics for supply chain events and the secure method for selectively sharing supply chain events with trading partners. Theses standards for traceability have been used in successfuldeployments in many industries and there are now a wide range of products that are certified as being compatible with these standards.
See Tracking and tracing.

In materials, traceabilityrefers to the capability to associate a finished part with destructive test results performed on material from the same ingot with the same heat treatment, or to associate a finished part with...