Cyprus is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea south of Turkey, whose territory is the closest, followed by Syria and Lebanon to the east. The country is also a member of the EuropeanUnion (EU). The remaining third (North Island) was occupied by Turkey in 1974, which then establishing the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, never recognized by the United Nations, recognized onlyby Turkey itself.
The name of the island and the country derives from the Greek word for copper, For this reason, some authors speculate that the best translation of the Portuguese name Cipro wouldrather Cyprus.
After successively occupied by Phoenicians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks and Romans in ancient times, Cyprus was dominated by the Republic of Venice from 1489 untilthe invasion of the Ottoman Turks in 1570. At the Congress of Berlin, the island passed to the British administration to July 12, 1878, officially being converted into colony in 1914, with the outbreakof the First World War.
In 1930 began the first revolts in favor of enosis (union of Cyprus with Greece) and, at the end of the Second World War, the Greek Cypriots increase pressure to end theBritish rule. Archbishop Makarios leads the campaign for enosis and is deported to the Seychelles in 1956 after a series of attacks on the island.
In 1960, Cyprus, Greece and the UK signed a treatydeclaring the independence of the island, staying with the British sovereign bases of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Makarios becomes President, but the constitution stated that the Turkish Cypriots would get thevice presidency, with veto power, hampering the funcionamiento state and relations between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, leading to explosions of violence intercommunity in 1963 and 1967.
TheRepublic of Cyprus is accepted as a member of the European Union in 2004, while a plan to apply the UN-backed reunification, despite a referendum in which 76% of Greek Cypriots voted against....