Manual linux

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|Guide - Basic Commands |
|General   |   Filesystem   |   Administrative   |   Process   |   Network |
|Linux has so many commands that it's easy for the uninitiated to feel overwhelmed.Don't panic. Linux's commands are all quite simple and easy to learn.|
|As for those commands that appear bewilderingly complex, it's just an illusion. Long, seemingly complicated commands are actually just made up of |
|multiple, simpler commands. They achieve their power by being able to work together. This is the way of the UNIX world in general. |
|Let's look at anexample: |
| |
|    cat /var/log/messages | grep failed|
|This command will sort through your log file and list all of the failed login attempts since the system was last started. The entire line is actually |
|composed of three small commands: |
|cat prints out the contents of a textfile. Here, we are telling it to display the contents of the file /var/log/messages (this is your main log file.) |
|| This symbol is called the pipe (it is located to the left of your backspace key.) It is used to take the output of one command (in this case cat) and |
|pass it to a second (grep, in our example.)|
|grep will sort through all of the lines it is given (in this case the lines from the messages file), grab any lines with a word matching the one you |
|specify (I specified the word 'failed'), and display them. |
|There is no end to the possibilities of combining simplecommands to achieve complicated tasks. In this way, the command line becomes much more powerful|
|and time-saving than the point-and-click wizards of Windows. (I once had to change the ownership and access rights of ~150 users' home directories and |
|files on an NT server. It took over 3 hours of clicking. With proper command line tools, it could have been done in minutes.)|
|I list only a few commands and options (the ones I find myself most commonly using). You will quickly outgrow this list. When you do, use the --help |
|switch to get a full listing of the commands options (e.g. tar --help.) You can find more comprehensive lists of commands from other newbie guides. |
|Also, do yourself a favor and buy the book "Linux in a Nutshell" published byO'Reilly. Just browsing through it is an indispensable way to learn new |
|Linux commands. |
|Some Other Notes and Tips: |
|Saveyourself a ton of typing by using command completion (the key.) See explanation below. |
|Your present working directory is not in your path by default, nor should it be (to keep trojans and viruses from executing themselves.) To run an |
|executable or script that is not your path, you must specify that the program is in your current...
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