Em primeiro lugar,... / Antes de tudo,... / Para começar, / Para início de conversa, | First of all, ... / In the first place, ... / To begin with, ... | First of all I would like to bring to your attention the latest news. / I think first of all we have to decide where to go on the holydays. / I just want to make a very brief comment first of all. / Yourattitude in the first place is selfish and arrogant. |
REFERÊNCIA | REFERENCE | EXAMPLE |
Com relação a ... / No que diz respeito a ... / No que tange a ... | Regarding / With regard to / Concerning / Considering | Regarding the government’s decision to increase taxes, we have some comments to make. / We need to clarify the situation with regard to these conferences. / Considering that hewas the youngest on the field, he played well. |
INTRODUÇÃO OPORTUNA DE NOVO ASSUNTO | CHANGE OF SUBJECT | EXAMPLE |
A propósito, … / Por falar nisso, … | By the way, … / Speaking of that, … / Incidentally … | We are expecting freezing temperatures for the next few days. By the way, did you bring warm clothing?
To be able to shoot a film in space would be really exciting. Speaking of that,I’m going to space in 2008.
The airlines charge half-price for students. Incidentally, I have already bought my ticket to New York. (form.) |
COMENTÁRIO DE REFORÇO | REINFORCEMENT COMMENT | EXAMPLE |
Por sinal, ... / Aliás, ... / Inclusive ... | As a matter of fact ... / In fact ... | It's not true that he cannot swim. As a matter of fact, he used to work as a lifeguard in Hawaii.
Pricesoffered by scuba diving instructors in Taiwan are very competitive – slightly cheaper, in fact, than other places in Asia. |
Pelo contrário, … / Na verdade, … | On the contrary … / Actually … | It is not bad: on the contrary, it is very good. / I've been visiting your site for years now. I actually came across it when I was searching for information about another English school. |
CONFORMIDADE |AGREEMENT | EXAMPLE |
De acordo com ... / Conforme ... / Segundo ... | According to ... / In accordance with ... | According to King Hassan II and his government, the prison does not exist.
The ballot was held in accordance with labor union rules. (formal) |
ÊNFASE | EMPHASIS | EXAMPLE |
Principalmente / Sobretudo / Especialmente / Ainda mais. | Especially ... / Mainly ... / In particular... / More important ... | I don't think there's any reason to get married again, especially after what I've been through. / I grew up listening to the radio and to records. I learned music mainly from that. / The UN Basic Principles emphasize that the use of force, and, in particular, the use of firearms, by law enforcement officials, including soldiers, should be exceptional. / More importantthere's a huge, vital, growing middle class in China. |
CAUSA E MOTIVO | CAUSE | EXAMPLE |
Porque / Por causa de / Uma vez que / Já que / Visto que / Pois | Because … / Since … | I love cats because they seem to melt in your arms when you cuddle them.
Since you asked so nicely, I'll tell you some of my secrets. |
Em função de / Em razão de / Por motivos de / Em virtude de / Devido a | Asa result of ... / Due to … | There are several studies predicting extinction of certain species as a result of climate change.
Climate expert warns of worse storms due to human-induced climate change. |
DECORRÊNCIA | RESULT, CONSEQUENCE | EXAMPLE |
Por este motivo, ... / Por esta razão, … / Por isso … | With this in mind, … / For this reason … / That's why … | I would like to minimize thefuel consumption of my V8 engine. With this in mind, I would appreciate any fuel economy tips you can offer.
Twenty-four percent were dissatisfied with the counseling and for this reason broke it off.
The peace demonstrators do support our troops: that's why they want to bring them home. |
Desta forma, / Assim sendo (sendo assim), / Nesse sentido, ... | This way ... / In doing so ... | In...