Fsdfsdfsdf

Disponível somente no TrabalhosFeitos
  • Páginas : 19 (4738 palavras )
  • Download(s) : 0
  • Publicado : 13 de outubro de 2012
Ler documento completo
Amostra do texto
Forensic Anthropology

45

The human skeleton
anterior view

cranium
clavicle

mandible
scapula

sternum
rib
humerus
vertebra
radius

innominate
sacrum

ulna
carpals
metacarpals
phalanges
femur
patella

tibia
fibula
tarsals

metatarsals

Forensic Anthropology

46

The human skeleton
posterior view

cranium
clavicle

mandible

scapula
humerusvertebra
ulna

innominate
sacrum
cocyx

radius
carpals
metacarpals
phalanges
femur

fibula
tibia

47

Forensic Anthropology

The human skeleton
The adult human skeleton contains 206 bones which vary in size from
the almost microscopic ossicles of the inner ear to femora which may exceed
450 mm in length. This great variation in size is accompanied by similar
variation inshape which makes identification of individual bones relatively
straightforward. Some bones, however, are more difficult to identify than
others, with the bones of the hands, feet, rib cage and vertebral column
requiring closer scrutiny than the rest. This is true both within our species
and between our species and other mammals. While it is very difficult to
confuse a human femur with that froma large kangaroo, phalanges,
metatarsals and metacarpals require greater expertise. Prior to epiphyseal
union infant and juvenile skeletal elements may also prove problematic. This
is particulary true where the infant bones are fragmentary and missing their
articular surfaces. In part this is a reflection of experience as osteological
collections contain relatively few subadult skeletons andthey are less
frequently encountered in forensic and anthropological investigations.
There are a number of excellent texts on human osteology and several
of the more general texts on physical anthropology have a chapter devoted
to the human skeleton and dentition. Reference books on human anatomy,
for instance Warwick and Williams’s (1973) “Gray’s Anatomy”, and dental
anatomy, for exampleWheeler (1974), are a good source of information
although often aimed at a specialist audience. Donald Brothwell’s “Digging
up Bones” has a broad coverage of the archaeological and anthropological
aspects of excavating and interpreting human skeletal materials and is an
excellent introductory text. More detailed books on human skeletal anatomy,
with an anthropological orientation, are providedby Shipman et al. (1985)
and White (1991). For an evolutionary perspective Aiello and Dean’s (1990)
“Introduction to human evolutionary anatomy” is the most stimulating and
thorough text available. For those of you who wish to distinguish human
bones from those of other Australian mammals Merrilees and Porter (1979)
provide a useful guide to the identification of some Australian mammals. Atpresent there are no publications directly comparing human skeletons with
those from the native and introduced mammals found in Australia.
The short skeletal atlas which follows should enable students without
access to texts in anatomy or skeletal materials to gain some familiarity with

Forensic Anthropology

48

the bones of the human skeleton. I have concentrated on illustrations,brief
descriptions and references to major sources of forensic literature. Where
data is available there are summary statistics, means and standard deviations,
for the dimensions of the relevant skeletal element in male and female
prehistoric Aborigines. The skeletons which provided these data were not of
known sex and sex was determined through examination of the associated
pelvis. Data onother human populations can be obtained by following up
the references listed in your unit booklet.

The cranium
The human cranium consists of a large globular vessel which protects
the brain, as well as providing support for masticatory and nuchal muscles,
and an orofacial skeleton for food processing and the support of sensory
systems. Excluding the mandible and hyoid the cranium is...
tracking img