Editors Gerhard Knothe
National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Peoria, Illinois, U.S.A.
Jon Van Gerpen
Department of Mechanical Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa, U.S.A.
University of Applied Sciences Coburg, Germany
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AOCS Mission Statement
To be the global forum for professionals interested in lipids and related materials through the exchange of ideas, information science, and technology.
AOCS Books and Special Publications Committee M. Mossoba, Chairperson, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland R. Adlof, USDA, ARS, NCAUR, Peoria, Illinois P. Dutta, Swedish University ofAgricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden T. Foglia, ARS, USDA, ERRC, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania V. Huang, Abbott Labs, Columbus, Ohio L. Johnson, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa H. Knapp, Deanconess Billings Clinic, Billings, Montana D. Kodali, General Mills, Minneapolis, Minnesota T. McKeon, USDA, ARS, WRRC, Albany, California R. Moreau, USDA, ARS, ERRC, Wyndoor, Pennsylvania A. Sinclair, RMIT University,Melbourne, Victoria, Australia P. White, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa R. Wilson, USDA, REE, ARS, NPS, CPPVS, Beltsville, Maryland Copyright (c) 2005 by AOCS Press. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without written permission of the publisher. The paper used in this book is acid-free and falls within the guidelines establishedto ensure permanence and durability.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Biodiesel : etc / editor, Author. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-000000-00-00 (acid-free paper) 1. XXXX. 2. XXXXX. 3. XXXX. I. Author(s). TP991.S6884 2004 668'.12--dc22 2004008574 CIP Printed in the United States of America. 08 07 06 05 04 5 4 3 2 1
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The technical concept of using vegetable oils or animal fats or even used oils as a renewable diesel fuel is a fascinating one. Biodiesel is now the form in which these oils and fats are being used as neat diesel fuel or in blends with petroleum-based diesel fuels. The concept itself may appear simple, but that appearance is deceiving since the use of biodiesel is fraught withnumerous technical issues. Accordingly, many researchers around the world have dealt with these issues and in many cases devised unique solutions. This book is an attempt to summarize these issues, to explain how they have been dealt with, and to present data and technical information. Countless legislative and regulatory efforts around the world have helped pave the way toward the widespreadapplication of the concept. This book addresses these issues also. To complete the picture, chapters on the history of vegetable oil-based diesel fuels, the basic concept of the diesel engine, and glycerol, a valuable byproduct of biodiesel production, are included. We hope that the reader may ﬁnd the information in this book useful and stimulating and that most of the signiﬁcant issues regardingbiodiesel are adequately addressed. If a reader notices an error or inconsistency or has a suggestion to improve a possible future edition of this book, he or she is encouraged to contact us. This book has been compiled from the contributions of many authors, who graciously agreed to do so. We express our deepest appreciation to all of them. We also sincerely thank the staff of AOCS Press for theirprofessionalism and cooperation in bringing the book to print. Gerhard Knothe Jon Van Gerpen J ü rgen Krahl November 4, 2004
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Gerhard Knothe, USDA, ARS, NCAUR, Peoria, IL 61604 Jon Van Gerpen, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 Michael J. Haas, USDA, ARS, ERRC, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 Thomas A. Foglia,...