Nathaniel Hawthorne´s Biography
Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne, July 4, 1804-May 19,1864) in city of Salem, Massachusetts was an American novelist and a short story writer. He added a "W" To make his name " Hawthorne". The Scarlet Letter was published in 1820, followed by a succession of other novels. A political appointment took Hawthorne and family to Europe before their returnto Wayside in 1860.
Hawthorne´s works belong romanticism or more specially dark romanticism. Many of his works are inspired by Puritan New England. His later writings also reflect his negative view of the Transcendentalism movement.
Hawthorne became one of the leading writers of his time, moving away from formalism and exploring the ideas of individual responsibility, the importance of creativeexpression and man’s relationship to the natural world. He also at times delves into the mysterious and disturbing.
While Hawthorne avidly read and enjoyed the short stories of James Fennimore Cooper and Sir Walter Scott, his own were not well-received at first. But whether it be Prynne’s indomitable spirit, the moral dilemma of “Young Goodman Brown” (1835), the disastrous side of vanity in “TheBirth Mark” (1843), or “Ethan Brand’s” (1850) Unpardonable Sin, many of Hawthorne’s works remain popular and have inspired numerous other authors’ works, and adaptations to film.
Back home at The Wayside, Hawthorne continued to write of his travels in his Passages From Notebooks volumes. ‘We sometimes congratulate ourselves at the moment of waking from a troubled dream; it may be so the momentafter death.’ (October 25th, 1836 entry from Passages from the American Notebooks ). Our Old Home (1863) was his last publication before his death. Nathaniel Hawthorne died on 19 May 1864. Franklin Pierce, James Russell Lowell, Henry Wadsworth Fellow and Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes were among the many who mourned the loss of their friend. Hawthorne lies buried on Author’s Ridge in the SleepyHollow Cemetery in Concord, Massachusetts among his many friends including the Alcotts, Emerson, and Thoreau. After devoting her remaining years to editing her husbands’ notebooks for publication, Sophia died in 1871
The Scarlet Letter ´s Plot Summary
The story starts during the summer of 1642, near Boston, Massachusetts, in a Puritan village. A young woman, named Hester Prynne, has been led fromtown prision with her infant daugther, and on the breast of her gown a rag of scarlet cloth that assumed the
shape of a letter. It is the uppercase letter A. The Scarlet Letter " A" represents adultery and a symbol of her sin , so that way people all over could see her badge of shame. Hester is married with an older man called Roger Chillingworth and also a doctor and she refuses todivulge the name of her lover. He settles in Boston to practice medicine there.
Several years pass. Hester supports herself by working as a seamstress and her daughter, Pearl grows into a willful child and is said to be the scarlet letter come to life as both Hesters love and her punishment. An respected minister known as Arthur Dimmesdale helps Pearl and Hester since community officials attempt totake away daughter from mother.
Chillingworth suspects this connection between Hester and Dimmesdale, since the minister is suffering from a heart trouble and psychological distress. Chillingworth becomes Dimmesdale´s doctor just to discovers his secret and he finds a very suspicious sign. While sleeping, Chillingworth sees an “A” burned into Dimmesdale´s chest, what convinces him that suspiciousare correct.
One day Dimmesdale preaches his most eloquent sermon. Hester, Pearl and him made plans to live as a normal family , but he impulsively mounts the scaffold with his lover and daughter, confessing it in public. and exposing the mark from his chest. He falls dead just after Pearl kisses him. It’s a very dramatic history with a sad end. Later on, Pearl marries with a rich aristocrat...
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