The Linguist Noam Chomsky who influenced the generative-transformational school of linguist, states that people born with the innate universal structure that makes possible theacquisition by the child of a particular systems languages, that is, the Universal Grammar. The Universal Grammar is directly linked to the Cognitivism where the understanding that learning occursthrough a process in which new information received is related to information already existing in the learner's mind and only then it is saved in the memory. So what is stored in memory will be greatlyinfluenced by what already existed in memory. Cognitivism focuses on the inner mental activities – opening the “black box” of the human mind is valuable and necessary to try to understand how peoplelearn. Mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be explored. Knowledge can be seen as schema or symbolic mental constructions. Learning is defined as change in alearner’s schemata.
The cognitivism is a response to the behaviorism, people are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli; people are rational beings that requireactive participation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking. Or, like said Chomsky: human language cannot be scrutinized simply in terms of observable stimuli and responses orthe volumes of raw data gathered by field linguists. The teaching-learning process is more complex than memorizing, repetition and imitation that are the bases of the Audio Lingual Method that isbased on behaviorism.
How students learn? This not a question easy to respond to, on the contrary, the consensus on this issue is far from certain. There is a wealth of research about the topic, butwithout final conclusion about it. Although, relevant findings point out that: we know that we do not know much about it; attitude and motivation are significant variables; people seem to learn in...
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