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Carbohydrate Polymers 73 (2008) 74–82 www.elsevier.com/locate/carbpol
Synthesis and characterization of cellulose acetate produced from recycled newspaper
Guimes Rodrigues Filho a,*, Douglas Santos Monteiro a, Carla da Silva Meireles a, Rosana Maria Nascimento de Assuncao a, Daniel Alves Cerqueira a, ¸˜ b Hernane Silva Barud , Sidney J.L. Ribeirob, Younes Messadeq b
ˆ ˆ ´ Instituto de Quımica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais, Av. Joao Naves de Avila 2121, ˜ Caixa Postal 593, CEP: 38400-902, Brazil b ´ Instituto de Quı mica da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Araraquara, SP, Brazil
Received 2 August 2007; received in revised form 4 September 2007; accepted 5 November 2007 Available online 13November 2007
Abstract In this work, the viability of recycling newspaper for producing cellulose acetate was tested. Newspaper recycling is extremely important not only for the environment preservation, but also from the economical point of view of aggregating value to this residue. Cellulose acetate was produced from a homogeneous acetylation, and then characterized by FTIR, DSC and TGA.Acetylation times were 48 h for as received newspaper (CA48) and 24 h for deligniﬁed newspaper (CA24), resulting in cellulose diacetate (DS = 1.98 ± 0.22) for CA48 and cellulose triacetate (DS = 2.79 ± 0.02) for CA24, respectively. Membranes of these materials were produced and characterized according to the previously mentioned techniques and by measurements of water vapor ﬂux, which were compared tomembranes of nanoﬁltration SG from OsmonixÒ. Results showed that independently of a puriﬁcation step, it is possible to produce cellulose acetate membranes through the chemical recycling of newspaper and that membrane CA24 presents thermal stability comparable to membranes produced of commercial cellulose acetate. Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Cellulose acetate; Newspaper;Membranes; Recycling
1. Introduction Brazilian paper and cellulose industry aggregates about 220 companies which produce around 10.1 million metric tons of cellulose and 8.6 million metric tons of paper each year. This production corresponds to 1.4% of Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP) and makes Brazil the seventh major producer of cellulose – leader in the production of short ﬁbercellulose and 11th in the production of paper. Brazilian paper and cellulose products are manufactured exclusively from wood of forests planted in degraded areas, avoiding the cut of native trees. The forestal base of this country constitutes one of the major comparative advanta*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +55 3432394174; fax: +55 3432394208. E-mail address: email@example.com (G. Rodrigues Filho).
gesfor the local companies against their global competitors. The planted area totalizes 1.7 million hectares (75% eucalyptus, 24% pine and 1% of other woods). In November 2001, the State of Sao Paulo Research ˜ Foundation (FAPESP) announced the beginning of the project FORESTs, for the sequencing of part of the Eucalyptus genome, developed in the ambit of the Partnership Technological InnovationProgram, PITE, with the objective of improving the raw material for the production of paper and cellulose. In 2002, a data bank with 112,152 sequences of Eucalyptus grandis DNA was the result of the ﬁrst phase of the project FORESTs Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project Consortim. On the other hand, as said previously, 24% of the planted area corresponds to pine (long ﬁber wood), which is used forproducing newsprint. Pine is a conifer tree of the genus Pinus, of the
0144-8617/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.11.010
G. Rodrigues Filho et al. / Carbohydrate Polymers 73 (2008) 74–82
Pinaceae botanic family, which presents straight, cylindrical trunk and a pyramidal crown. The most utilized pine trees in Brazil are Pinus...
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