Resumo dos capítulos 13, 14 e 15 do livro methodology in tesol

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PORTER, Don; ROBERTS, Jon. Authentic Listening Activities. CARRUTERS, Rod. Teaching Pronunciation. BASSANO, Sharron Kay; CHRISTISON, Mary Ann. Developing Succesful Conversation Groups.In: LONG, Michael H.; RICHARDS, Jack C. (Org.). Methodology in Tesol: A Book of Readings. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1987. (p. 177-207)

Chapter 13: Authentic Listening ActivitiesThere are differences between listening texts especially prepared for ELT, and the spoken language not prepared for the purpose of teaching. We can characterize the ELT listening text through theseaspects: Intonation, Received Pronunciation, Enunciation, Structural Repetition, Complete Sentences, Distinct Turn-Taking, Pace, Quantity, Attention Signals, Formality, Limited Vocabulary, Too muchInformation and Mutilation.
Thus, it gets clear that exist a greater difference between ELT classroom situations and the language spoken to the world outside. Why is there this difference? Becausemost of all the students tend to speak according to the formal grammar and what they have learned within the classroom. They are understood but what they hear from a native speaker is a language fullof colloquialism: Therefore:

If we are to help learners cope with the authentic situation of mismatch between the language they produce and what which they hear, we must at leastexpose them to authentic language and, if possible, lead them to work out strategies for coming to terms with it” (PORTER; ROBERTS, 1987. p 179).

When we talk about “authentic listeningactivities” we must know about types of listening, what happens with the listener during the listening and what he hears.
In general we have to pay attention to the main words, not all the words.For example, if the student is listening a text about the weather, he must try to understand certain words like appropriate clothes to wear, season, etc. These tips have the purpose to involve the...
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