Presente perfect and real conditional - grammar

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Unit 1 – Present Perfect with Yet, already , just (Changes)

Use the present perfect to talk about things that happened in the past and have an effect on the present

My neighbor has just painted his front door. (It looks good now).
Kim has already written her report. (The report is finished now.)

• Use not yet when somethinghas not happened but you expect it to happen or be completed in the future.
George hasn’t finished that book yet. (But he’ll finish it in a few days.)

• Use just when the action happened very recently.
I’ve just washed the car. (I finished washing it a few minutes ago.)

• Use already when the action is completed sooner than expected.
I’vealready cleaned up my desk. (My desk is neat and clean now.) neat = arrumado

• Use yet to ask whether something has happened that you are expecting will happen. (Use Yet para perguntar sobre algo que tem acontecido e você está esperando acontecer) Yet is used in questions and negative sentences.
Have you done your homework yet? (Is your homework finished?) I haven’tfinished yet.

• Just goes between have and the past participle.
He has just cleaned the house.

• Yet usually goes at the end of a clause.
I haven’t walked the dog yet.

• Already goes either between have and the past participle or at the end of the clause.
She has already bought some plants.
She has bought some plantsalready.

Note: You may also use the past tense with yet, already and just.
Did you eat yet? I already ate. I just had breakfast.

Unit 2 – Real Conditional (Australia)

Use the real conditional to talk about future possibilities.
Will I need rain gear if I go in June?

• Use the real conditional to make suggestions and to give advice or warnings.If you plan several flights, it will be cheaper to buy a pass.
If you book your flight well in advance, you may get a better price.
If you use sunscreen, you won’t get sunburned.

• The if clause states the condition (What needs to happen).
If I have the time, I’ll help you with your homework. (I will help you under the condition that Ihave time.)

• Use the simple present in the if clause and the future with will or be going to, a modal, or the imperative in the result clause.

|If clause (Condition): |Result clause (Condition): |
|Simple Present|Future or Imperative |
| | |
| |you’ll see beautiful landscapes. |
|If yougo to Australia, |are you going to bring me a souvenir? |
| |I can lend you a travel guide. |
| |take me with you.|

• Unless means if not.
Don’t go to Australia unless you like hot weather. (Don’t go to Australia if you don’t like hot weather.)

Note: The if clause can go before or after the result clause. Use comma to separate the two clauses only when the if clause begins the sentence.
If you use...
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