Algumas fontes citadas para analisar platão
Plato, born around 427 BCE and 429 BCE, was an Athenian philosopher and a disciple of the great Socrates himself. Very much like his master, Plato was an open enemy of the sophists and a dedicated philosopher. He believed strongly in the philosopher’s ideas; there was a single, great truth, and that this truth was attainable by everyone. Plato wasalso a philosopher famous for his writings; he produced several important documents, many of which are known to this day (one example of such documents is the Apology of Socrates, where Plato writes Socrates’ defense from the Athenian charges against his person).
While mostly all philosophers knew about the works of their predecessors, Plato was the first one to finally merge together thedifferent ideas of several philosophers in order to explain his interpretation of the world. From the renowned Pythagoras of Samos, Plato took the idea of the “number” and Pythagoras’ conclusions about the eternal soul. From his master and beloved teacher Socrates, he took the idea of the “concept” and, as he was his disciple, a part of Socrates’ philosophy. Finally, he merged the apparently oppositeideas of Parmenides of Elea and Heraclitus of Ephesus, the being against the becoming, claiming that both were right, but applied to different scenarios.
Plato looked at the world around him and said that things were indeed undergoing a continuous change. What was a scroll three thousand years ago most likely isn’t a scroll nowadays; it crumbled away to dust. Therefore, the world around us,everything we see or feel, is always undergoing a change. However, Plato agreed with Socrates’ idea of the “concept”, which said that there was a truth behind each object, and while that object might be eventually be destroyed or modified, that truth itself was eternal. In a hundred years, what is now a desk probably won’t be a desk anymore, but our idea of what a desk actually is (something elevatedfrom the ground, on top of which you can deposit anything small and light enough) will remain the same.
If there are thousands of different objects that are in constant change, there must also be thousands of concepts behind those objects, and those concepts would always remain the same. Following this reasoning, Plato proposed that there were actually two worlds; the material one, in which welive, where change is unavoidable, and a second one that existed outside the material world. It was in that second world that the concepts existed, and that world was utterly immutable. Plato named that second world the World of Ideas, and the first one he named the World of Senses. He also changed the name of the “concept” to the term “idea”.
According to Plato, the World of Ideas actuallyexisted as a place, but outside the material world. Anyone was able to reach into the World of Ideas through the use of reason. As a matter of fact, that was actually how people “learned” things. Since the ideas were eternal, they were neither created nor could be destroyed; they drifted through the World of Ideas from the dawn of Time to eternity. Plato proposed that one could not create a newscience, object, word, of similar; instead, he or she would merely retrieve that information from the World of Ideas.
Plato also proposed that our souls always existed in the World of Ideas, and they were brought into the World of Senses by the demigod Demiurg (which, in Greek, means “artifice”, the one who creates objects specific to his trade). While on the World of Ideas, our souls knew all theknowledge that existed, as they both drifted across the same world; however, upon being projected into the material world, all that knowledge was forgotten (a process called Anamnesis) and had to be slowly remembered throughout one’s life.
If we look at the two world, the one of Senses and the one of Ideas, we clearly see that they have the core principles of the teachings of none else than...
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