Over the history of socio-political-economics, scholars have brought a set of different interpretations and definitions to gather a concept to what can be a very abstract idea, Entrepreneurship.
The expression was firt used by Richard Cantillon on the early 18th century, to define entrepreneur as the "agent who buys means of production at certain prices in order to combine them into anew product”. Adam Smith, came after with his book ‘The Wealth of Nations’(1776), mentioning that entrepreneurs were the economic agents who transformed demand into supply for profits, mainly, they were the agent creator of The Wealth of Nations.
Definitions carry on trough the centuries, dozens of theories can be find. Some believing that external factors make an entrepreneur, factors likereligion, education, family, history, role models. Others state that Internal factors s the actual fuel for the entrepreneurial flame, personal factors like Risk-taking ability, Need for achievement, Locus of Control, Desire for Autonomy, Deviancy, Creativity and Opportunism, Intuition.
From all definitions, one of the most broad accepted definitions is by Joseph Schumpeter(1934): “the entrepreneuris one who applies "innovation" within the context of the business to satisfy unfulfilled market demand (Liebenstein, 1995)”. This is exactly what we can observe in the successful entrepreneurs, as example we could mention, Bill Gates(Microsoft), Richard Branson(Virgin), Pierre Omidyar(Ebay),John D. Rockefeller(standard Oil), just to mention few.
Dr.Alvin Chan, Advisor for CambridgePI,synthesize very well on his article that entrepreneur is an innovator who implements changes trough new combinations. This can take several forms:
-The introduction of a new good or standard of quality
-The introduction of a more efficient method of production-The opening of a new market-The acquisition of a new source of new materials supply-The carrying out of the new organization in any industry.We can definitely find those aspect on the Entrepreneur:
Eike Fuhrken Batista
Commonly Eike Batista, born in Brazil in1956 In governador Valadares, Minas Gerais.
Son of a multinational ex C.E.O (or MD, Managing Director) of Vale do Rio Doce, the second-largest mining company in the world. After spending childhood in Brazil, he moved to Europe with his family due of this fathers task tointernationalize the company ,spent some time in Switzerland, Germany and Belgium. In 1974, he began to study metallurgical engineering at the University of Aachen, Germany, but left without the degree. In the mean time, began selling insurance policies door to door in his town to ensure an income and maintain financial independence.Back to Brazil in the early 80s, began to trade in the mineralsector. Fluent in five languages - Portuguese, German, English, French and Spanish - was an intermediary between producers and buyers in the Amazon and large centres in Brazil and Europe. Sarted borrowing U$500.000 from Jewish jewellers, sum that would yield him U$6 million. This was his passport from middleman to a businessman. In the same decade, implemented the first mechanized gold plant inthe Amazon area, created his own group and became the C.E.O of the Canadian TVX Gold, thats when he began relationship with the global capital markets. Eike created and put into production eight gold mines in Brazil, Chile and Canada, between 1980 and 2000. After selling shares from the Canadian TVX, capitalised U$1 billion, and by watching many new competitors entering the market decide that wastime to reinvent himself, as he described.
Since 2000, began to learn the Brazilian needs in the sectors of natural resources and infrastructure, having spotted an opportunity, started to act on it. Between 2004 and 2010, created, structured, and opened to the Capital market, his main companies, MMX (mining), MPX (energy), OGX (petroleum), LLX (logistics) and OSX (offshore industry). All of...
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