Corantes industriais

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K. Hunger (Editor)

Industrial Dyes
Chemistry, Properties, Applications

Furtherof Interest:
Herbst, W., Hunger, K. Industrial Organic Pigments Production, Properties, Applications
Third, Completely Revised Edition 2003 ISBN 3-527-30576-9

Buxbaum, G. (Ed.) Industrial Inorganic Pigments Second, Completely Revised Edition
1998 ISBN 3-527-28878-3

Smith, H. M. (Ed.) High PerformancePigments
2002 ISBN 3-527-30204-2

Völz, H. G. Industrial Color Testing Fundamentals and Techniques Second, Completely Revised Edition
2001 ISBN 3-527-30436-3

Freitag, W., Stoye, D. (Eds.) Paints, Coatings and Solvents Second, Completely Revised Edition
1998 ISBN 3-527-28863-5

Bieleman, J. (Ed.) Additives for Coatings
2000 ISBN 3-527-29785-5

Klaus Hunger (Editor)

Industrial DyesChemistry, Properties, Applications

Dr. Klaus Hunger (Editor) Johann-Strau û-Str. 35 D-65779 Kelkheim Germany formerly Hoechst AG, Frankfurt, Germany

This book was carefully produced. Nevertheless, editor , authors and publisher do not warrant the information contained therein to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural detailsor other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.

Library of Congress Card No.: Applied for. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data: A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek Die Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data isavailable in the Internet at ISBN 3-527-30426-6  2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Printed on acid-free paper. All rights reserved (including those of translation in other languages). No part of this book may be reproduced in any form – by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means – nor transmitted or translated into machine language without written permission from the publishers.Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not specifically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law. Composition: Kühn & Weyh, 79111 Freiburg Printing and Bookbinding: Druckhaus Darmstadt GmbH, Darmstadt Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany.




List of Contributors 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2

Dyes, GeneralSurvey Introduction 1

Classification Systems for Dyes

2 3

Classification of Dyes by Use or Application Method Nomenclature of Dyes 6 7

Equipment and Manufacture Economic Aspects References 12 10

Important Chemical Chromophores of Dye Classes Introduction 13


2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3

Azo Chromophore 14 Introduction 14 GeneralSynthesis 16 Diazo Components 16 Diazotization Methods 19 Coupling Components 20 Azo Coupling in Practice 28 Principal Properties 29 Tautomerism 29 Metallized A zo Dyes 32


Contents 2.1.4 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.5 2.5.1

Carbocyclic Azo Dyes 33 Heterocyclic Azo Dyes 34 References 35 Anthraquinone Chromophore 35 Introduction 35 General Synthesis 36 Principal Properties 36 Benzodifuranone Dyes 37 Polycyclic Aromatic Carbonyl Dyes References 39 Indigoid Chromophore 40 Introduction 40 General Synthesis 40 Principal Properties 41 Color 41 Basic Chromophore 42 Solvatochromism 42Redox System 43 References 43 Cationic Dyes as Chromophores 44 Introduction 44 General Synthesis 45 Chemical Structure and Classification 45 Dyes with Delocalized Charge 45 Dyes with Localized Charge 49 Principal Properties 52 Cationic Dyes for Synthetic Fibers 52 Cationic Dyes for Paper, Leather, and Other Substrates References 55 Polymethine and Related Chromophores 56 Introduction 56 General...
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