Bendable Inorganic Thin-Film Battery for Fully Flexible Electronic Systems
Min Koo,† Kwi-Il Park,† Seung Hyun Lee,† Minwon Suh,† Duk Young Jeon,† Jang Wook Choi,‡ Kisuk Kang,§ and Keon Jae Lee*,†
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic ofKorea ‡ Graduate School of EEWS (WCU), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea § Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea
S * Supporting Information
ABSTRACT: High-performance ﬂexible power sources have gained attention, asthey enable the realization of next-generation bendable, implantable, and wearable electronic systems. Although the rechargeable lithium-ion battery (LIB) has been regarded as a strong candidate for a high-performance ﬂexible energy source, compliant electrodes for bendable LIBs are restricted to only a few materials, and their performance has not been suﬃcient for them to be applied to ﬂexibleconsumer electronics including rollable displays. In this paper, we present a ﬂexible thin-ﬁlm LIB developed using the universal transfer approach, which enables the realization of diverse ﬂexible LIBs regardless of electrode chemistry. Moreover, it can form high-temperature (HT) annealed electrodes on polymer substrates for high-performance LIBs. The bendable LIB is then integrated with a ﬂexiblelight-emitting diode (LED), which makes an all-in-one ﬂexible electronic system. The outstanding battery performance is explored and well supported by ﬁnite element analysis (FEA) simulation. KEYWORDS: Bendable thin-ﬁlm battery, all-solid-state, rechargeable LIB, ﬂexible electronic system he advent of a fully ﬂexible electronic system will be a great leap in technology, as it will open the door tothe next-generation electronic environment based on bendable, implantable, and wearable devices. These next-generation electronic devices are marked by unprecedented advantages of excellent portability, lightweight, and conformal contact on curvilinear surfaces.1,2 Although the remarkable development of mechanically ﬂexible electronic devices has been widely reported, their feasibility has beenrestricted in unit components, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs),3,4 sensing electrodes,5,6 circuit elements,7−9 and radio frequency identiﬁcation (RFID) antennas.10 Toward all-in-one ﬂexible systems, the development of a bendable high-power source that can be applied to consumer electronics has been an obstacle to overcome. Rechargeable lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have shown great promise asﬂexible power sources due to their high operating
voltage, high energy capacity, and long-term cyclability.2,11 In recent years, compliant materials on curvilinear surfaces, such as carbon nanotubes,12−15 carbon nanoﬁbers,16 graphene,17,18 metal oxide-based nanowires,19 and slurry-typed mixtures of nanostructured active materials,20,21 have been explored as ﬂexible LIB electrodes. Althoughthey have shown advanced performance for ﬂexible LIBs, the combination of these as anode or cathode has only been accessible to a few electrode materials that are synthesizable in certain nanostructures or carbon templates.22 Moreover, the use of liquid-type electrolytes has added more complexities in the realization of a fully ﬂexible LIB, and their thermal stability should be carefullyconsidered.23,24 In addition, the lightweight thin-ﬁlm shape of
Received: June 15, 2012 Revised: July 27, 2012 Published: July 30, 2012
dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl302254v | Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 4810−4816
© 2012 American Chemical Society
Nano Letters ﬂexible LIBs required for nano/microelectromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMSs) cannot be formed by slurry-type composite materials. In this paper, we...
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