X rays are highly energetic electromagnetic waves similar to visible light. These electromagnetic waves has a wavelengths between 0.02Å and 100Å(Almost the same size of an atom). They areproduced basically by the excitation of an electron of inner shell (K-Shell) that is expelled from the atom. This excitation is provided by an accelerated electron that was “shot” by an (X ray tube)*.When this electron hits the target it transfers the Kinetic energy from the accelerated electron to the inner shell electron. This is how the electron from K shell is expelled from the atom, when thishappens an outer electron (L-shell) jumps into the inner vacancy(this also happened with the electron from the M-Shell , it jumps from the M-shell to L-Shell) releasing energy. That energy released iscalled the X ray. Each of these transitions produces two kinds of X-rays , the jump from L to K produces K X-ray while the jump from M to L produces K X-ray. An important thing about X rays is thatthey are related to the material that has being used.
(X Rays being produced) (X ray tube)
*X Ray Tube : Consisted of a cathode(-) and an anode(+) inside a vacuum chamber. The cathode is theresponsible to produce heat with the filament and emit the focused electrons straight to the anode. The anode receive the electron and emit the x-rays and it is also responsible to conduct the heat outof the tube
The X ray has been used as one of the main method for determining the crystal structures of some materials. This is possible because as it was said on the beginning the wavelengths of Xrays are similar to the size of an atom. The atomic planes of the material causes the x rays beams to diffract, and this is called X ray diffraction. Using proper equipment (Diffractometer orphotographic film) you can detect this diffracted beams and then output to a computes that creates the image of the configuration of your material. This method can also be used to measure the space between...