Urban ecosystems and the use of clean development mechanisms

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“Urban Ecosystems and the Use of Clean Development Mechanisms”
Ricardo Siloto da Silva
Researcher of the Postgraduate Program in Urban Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Research Group: Urban sustainability. Study Group: Urban environmental management. E-mail: rss@ufscar.br.

Leandro Letti da Silva Araújo
Student of the Postgraduate Program in Urban Engineering,Federal University of São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Study Group: Urban environmental management. E-mail: lettiarq@yahoo.com.br

Fernanda Tonizza Moraes
Postgraduate Program in Geosciences and Environment, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil. Research Group: Geoenvironmental planning. E-mail: fetonizza@hotmail.com

Abstract
The development models adopted by many countries in the worldcontinue to produce, due to the high energetic and natural resources requirements for their maintenance, deep impacts and changes in the biosphere as well as social and environmental strokes, such as social inequity, unemployment and famine. Most of these negative impacts have been created by the establishment of cities, modifying greatly the natural landscape and generating consuming densenessand overburdening the environmental capacity. Through tout experiences around clean technologies and sensible consuming of natural resources, the proposed tool mentioned in article 12 of the Quioto Protocol called Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) allows local governments from developing countries to allocate investments in technologies in regards of clean energy usage, public transportationmanagement, industrial production processes, land usage, forest management and citizen’s awareness and education. By these means, the promotion of a favorable scenario towards development requires a kind of management guidance, understood as process and not as a product, which must bear as its main actors the own population, bringing together not only political responsibilities to the governmentrepresentatives, but ethical values to the all citizens. Keywords: urban ecosystems, clean development mechanisms, sustainable development

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Introduction
The evolution of human civilization has always been directly related to the consumption of natural energy resources, from food gathering to the occupation of physical space, from the production of consumer goods to the implementation ofinfrastructure for human settlements (ODUM, 1988; CORDANI and TAIOLI, 2000). Research indicates that today’s human, Homo sapiens sapiens, emerged about 40,000 years ago, and hence, about 30,000 years before the first known town. His primarily activities of hunting, fishing and fruit gathering included man in the process of natural food chains, determining his locational conditions, i.e., his proximity toenvironments with natural resources such as coastal regions and riverine areas (ODUM, 1988). After the advent of agriculture in the Neolithic period, the capacity to support energy increased for the first time in human history, due to man’s ability to cultivate plants and domesticate animals, which represented the basis of primary food production. On the heels of this production came the firsttowns, which were established as sites for the exchange of surplus products. Growing energy demand and the search for sources more compatible with the conditions created by society marked the evolution of anthropic culture, bringing with them constant economic, technological and political transformations. The wood of trees and other forms of biomass shared, and sometimes substituted, the use ofanimal and human muscle power. Human population growth, spatial occupation, and economic development generated ever increasing energy consumption, so that the renewable sources theretofore utilized no longer met the demand, modifying the consumption profile in the quest for new resources that could supply large quantities of energy, as in the case of fossil fuels (ODUM, 1988). Human and animal work...
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