Vol. 3, Issue 1: 35 - 48
THE TEACHING-LEARNING-TRAINING PROCESS IN RHYTMIC GYMNASTICS SUPPORTED BY THE ECOLOGICAL THEORY
Marise Botti1, Juarez Vieira do Nascimento2
São João Del Rei Federal University, Minas Gerais, Brazil Santa Catarina Federal University, Santa Catarina, Brazil Original research articleAbstract This study aimed to analyze and compare the structure of the teaching-learning-training process in children’s Rhythmic Gymnastics. Seventeen girls, aged 10 to 12 years, who were members of the Rhythmic Gymnastics initiation classes for athletes in the cities of Florianópolis-SC (n = 11) and Maringá-PR (n = 6) participated in this study. A systematic observation method was used for datacollection during the typical weeks of training. Chi-square and, when necessary, the Fisher Exact Test were used for statistical analysis. Using aspects of the Ecological Theory, the results showed a similarity between the structure of teaching-learning-training process, as the activity identification, the tasks progression, and coaches’ and athletes’ conduct. It is possible to conclude that the evidenceseems to confirm the use of a methodological approach in teaching RG founded on notions of progressions of exercises through the refinement and application of the technique. On the other hand, it has also become evident that interpersonal relationships that go through the training programs need to be re-evaluated. Keywords: rhythmic gymnastics, teaching, learning, training, ecological theory.INTRODUCTION Considering that Rhythmic Gymnastics (RG) has become more visible, mainly in athlete training centers, schools, and particularly in the media, it is expected that many studies related to RG would have been carried out. However, there is a lack of academic work in this area, and studies that have been conducted have mainly focused on high performance aspects of the sport. There are fewstudies related to RG that have focused on the different levels and methods of teaching and learning, as well as studies that consider the training environment or classroom. Among the few academic papers in Brazil, the ones which stand out were written by Crause (1985), Freire (2003), Freire & Scaglia (2003), Nísta-Piccolo (1999), Oliveira (2002), and Paes (1996).
Science of Gymnastics JournalThese have indicated the necessity to adapt models of teaching and learning to children's characteristics and interests. Relevant studies were also carried out by Marques (1997 and 2001), which traced the proximity of training models between schools and clubs, in addition to similarities regarding RG teaching for different age groups and levels. Another problem with RG is the emphasis given totechnical teaching. RG is one of the modalities that requires a certain level of technical expertise from its practitioners due to the complexity of its rules and movements. However, it also involves creativity, beauty, feelings, sensations, behaviors, and actions. This diversity of elements favors different forms of education and raises questions about the 35
Science of Gymnastics Journal
BottiM., do Nascimento J.V. THE TEACHING-LEARNING-TRAINING PROCESS…
Vol. 3, Issue 1: 35 - 48
organization and systems of practice, and consequently, on the methods that are used by coaches. In this context, it is essential to better understand how RG has been taught in athlete training centers. Therefore, we attempted to conduct a study that identified the structure of activities and tasks of theRG teaching-learning-training process, from the perspective of the practice environment and of the relationships between the people involved. The theory underpinning this study is the Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory. The ecological approach developed by Bronfenbrenner (1979, 1992), was previously used in studies carried out by Haddad (1997), Krebs (1993, 1995), Stefanello (1999), and Vieira...