The catholic church and the vatican

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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian Church, with more than one billion members worldwide. It is among the oldest institutions in the world and has played a prominent role in the history of Western civilization. The Catholic hierarchy is led by the Pope and includes cardinals, patriarchs and diocesan bishops.

The Church teaches that itis the one true Church divinely founded by Jesus Christ, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles and that the Pope is the sole successor of Saint Peter who was the first pope named by Jesus Christ.
After its foundation, the Catholic Church faced about 300 years of persecution from the Rome Empire, what made them start to meet behind closed doors.

In 306 (A.D) Constantinebecame emperor of Rome. His mother Helena became a Christian and urged Constantine to ease up on the persecution of Christians. He decided that Christianity would now be the state religion. 

Christianity became more associated with the Empire, resulting in persecution for Christians living outside of the empire, as their rulers feared Christians would revolt in favor of the Emperor.
After thefall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the Catholic faith competed with Aryanism for the conversion of the barbarian tribes

Due to a land jurisdiction, during the 11th century the church was divided between catholic and Orthodox Church (Eastern Christianity)
Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade in 1095. The Crusades were a series of religious expeditionary wars with the stated goal ofrestoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem. In 2001, Pope John Paul II apologized to the Orthodox Christians for the sins of Catholics including the sacking of Constantinople in 1204.
The sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade left Eastern Christians embittered, despite the fact that Pope Innocent III had expressly forbidden any such attack. (The crusaders inflicteda horrible and savage sacking on Constantinople for three days, during which many ancient and medieval Roman and Greek works were either stolen or destroyed. The magnificent Library of Constantinople was destroyed. The Crusaders ruthlessly and systematically violated the city's churches and monasteries, destroying, defiling, or stealing all they could lay hands on)

Through the late 15th andearly 16th centuries, European missionaries and explorers spread Catholicism to the Americas, Asia, Africa and Oceania.
The Catholic Church built an Empire after the crusades. Some data that helps us understand the significance of Catholic Church
* The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and medical services in the world;
* The catholic church is theinstitution with more Nobel Prizes in the world; (Pontifical Academy of Science)
* The biggest charity institution in the world;

Vatican City is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy. Vatican City was established as an independent state in 1929.It has an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population ofjust over 800. This makes Vatican City the smallest independent state in the world by both area and population.
Vatican City is an ecclesiastical state, ruled by the Pope. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergymen of various national origins. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See, and the location of the Pope's residence.
The Holy See is a entity (it exists since thecreation of the Catholic Church) sovereign of the Vatican City
The State of the Vatican City was created by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 to "ensure the absolute and visible independence of the Holy See" and "to guarantee to it an indisputable sovereignty in international affairs"
The Holy See, not the Vatican City, maintains diplomatic relations with states. Foreign embassies are accredited to the...