Russian

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  • Publicado : 13 de abril de 2013
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Table of Contents
Acknowledgements Abbreviations 0.1 Location and number of speakers 0.2 Brief overview of the Russian literary language 0.3 Dialects 1. Phonology 1.1 Orthography 1.2 Phonemic inventory 1.3. Vowels and Prosody 1.4 Consonants 1.5 Morphophonemic alternations 1.6 Pronunciations variants of CSR in Moscow and St. Petersburg 1.7 Tongue twisters and diction 2. Morphology 2.1Inflectional morphology 2.2 Declension 2.3 Indeclinable Nouns 2.4 Other declensional desinences: singular 2.5 Declensional desinences: plural 2.6 Formation of the Genitive Plural 2.7 The semantics of the Russian case system 2.8 Adjectives 2.9 Pronouns 2.10 Numerals 2.11 Time expressions 2.12 Nondeclinables: Adverbs and prepositions 2.13 Derivational Morphology 2.14 Verbs 3. Syntax 3.1 Syntax and syntacticcategories 3.2 Conditionals/Hypotheticals 3.3 Grammatical particles 3.4 Verbal government 3.5 Impersonal constructions 3.6 Proverbs and collocations 3.7 Use of profanity in CSR Bibliography 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 8 9 13 17 20 21 22 22 24 29 30 31 32 34 41 49 56 62 64 67 82 123 123 123 124 125 125 127 127 129

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Acknowledgements
This project would not have been possible without the reviews andcriticisms of several respected colleagues, including Ron Feldstein, Elena Maksimova and Irina Guliakova. My special thanks to Troy Williams for his assistance in editing, glossing and preparing a camera-ready manuscript.

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Abbreviations
A adj adv anim arc C CSR CSCR D f, fem G I inan L m, masc N n, neut pl sg V n/s PPP Ø // [] {} '' accusative adjective adverb animate archaic consonantContemporary Standard Russian Contemporary Standard Colloquial Russian dative feminine genitive instrumental inanimate locative masculine nominative neuter plural singular vowel non-syllabic past passive participle zero desinence phonemic transcription phonetic transcription morphophonemic and morphological transcription English glosses

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0. Socio- and geolinguistic situation
0.1 Location and numberof speakers Russian is the official language of the Russian Federation and was the primary official language of the Soviet Union (cf. Maps 1 and 2). Since the breakup of the USSR, Russian continues to be one of the official languages of Kyrgyzstan and Belarus, and may be used for official purposes in Kazakhstan and Ukraine. Recently ranked as the 4th most influential language in the world (Weber1999: 22), Russian is the first or second language of over 455 million speakers (Crystal 1997: 449). 0.2 Brief overview of the Russian literary language Russian, belonging to the Indo-European language family, is one of three contemporary East Slavic languages, the other two being Ukrainian and Belorussian. Old Church Slavonic, a South Slavic language, played a significant role in the developmentof the Russian language throughout its history with two periods of intensification, one during the 11th-13th centuries and another during the Second South Slavic influence (also referred to as “Re-Bulgarization”) in the 14th century. One may characterize the coexistence of Old Church Slavonic and the East Slavic vernacular as diglossic. This period of diglossia lasted well into the 18th century.Isačenko suggests that the name “Russian” be used for the written language only after the Tartar invasion and the destruction of Kiev (1980: 124). [Prior to this period, he suggests the term “East Slavic recension of Church Slavonic.”] Isačenko argues convincingly that one may begin to speak of a Russian literary language (which will later give rise to CSR) during a period from 1760-1825, datesthat generally correspond with Karamzin’s life [1766-1825] (1980: 132-139). Mixail Vasiljevič Lomonosov, Nikolaj Mixailovič Karamzin and Aleksandr Sergeevič Puškin were critical contributors to the development of what can be referred to as the modern Russian literary language. While the contributions of all 3 were significant, Karamzin was perhaps the most influential. However, it has often been...
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