Análise à nível do indivíduo. (Organização interna do Estado, orientação política dos estados é importante).
There is no canonical description of liberalism. What we tend to call liberal resembles a family portrait of principles and institutions, recognizable by certain characteristics-for example, individual freedom, political participation, privateproperty, and e.quali ty ofopportunity. 1152
More significant perhaps is that when states are forced to decide on which side of an impending world war they will fight, liberal states all wind up on the same side despite the complexity of the paths that take them there. (Doyle, 1156).
They do suggest that we consider the possibility that liberals have indeed established a separate peace-but only among themselves.(Doyle,1156).
Liberal states,founded on such individual rights as equality before the law, free speech and other civil liberties, private property, and elected representation are fundamentally against war this argument asserts. (Doyle. 1151)
Teoria da Paz democrática: Democracia é primordial à paz entre os estados.
(Nuncahouve uma guerra entre democracias)
(propriedade, igualdade jurídica, liberdade)
“In their relations with nonliberal states, however, liberal states have not escaped from insecurity caused by anarchy in the world political system considered as a whole” (DOYLE. 1968. P.1162)
“I find, with Kant and other liberal republicans, that liberalism does leave a coherent legacy on foreign affairs.Liberal states are different. They are indeed peaceful, yet they are also prone to make war (...). Liberal states have created a separate peace (...), and have also discovered liberal reasons for aggression” (Doyle, 1986, pp. 1151-2).
- Pacifismo liberal (Joseph Schumpeter)
acredita que o capitalismo democrático leva àpaz, a natureza humana é naturalmente boa. Os únicos que lucram com a guerra são os militares e os aristocratas.
“Only war profiteers and military aristocrats gain from wars.” (WALTZ. 1986, P.1153)
.Schumpeter's humans are rationalized, individualized, and democratized. They are also homogenized, pursuing material interests "monistically." (Doyle, 1162).
Because their material interests lie inpeaceful trade, they and the democratic state that these fellow citizens control are pacifistic. (Doyle, 1162).
- Imperialismo liberal (Nicolau Maquiavel)
Segurança política conduz à práticas expansionistas por parte dos cidadãos, que se pautam pela busca pela honra.
“Machiavelli argues, not only that republics are notpacifistic, but that they are the best form of state for imperial expansion” (DOYLE. 1986. P-1154)
Machiavelli's republic is a classical mixed republic. It is not a democracy which he thought would quickly degeneration a tyranny-but is characterized by social equality, popular liberty, and political participation (DOYLE, 1154).
Liberty results from "disunion -the competition and necessity forcompromise required by the division of powers among senate, consuls, and tribunes… (Doyle 1154)
Strength, and then imperial expansion, results from the way liberty encourages increased population and property, which grow when the citizens know their lives and goods are secure from arbitrary seizure. Free citizens equip large armies and provide soldiers who fight for public glory and thecommon good because these are, in fact, their own (Machiavelli, 1950, bk. 2, chap. 2, pp. 287-90)
Machiavelli advises, you should organize it as a free and popular republic like Rome, rather than as an aristocratic republic like Sparta or Venice. Expansion thus calls for a free republic. (Doyle, 1155).
Machiavelli's citizens are splendidly diverse in their goals but fundamentally unequal in...