Peixes do mundo

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Fishes of the World

Fishes of the World
Fourth Edition
Joseph S. Nelson Professor Emeritus of Biological Sciences
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9 Canada

This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright © 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Publishedsimultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment ofthe appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, e-mail:permcoordinator@wiley.com. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by salesrepresentatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. The publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services, and you should consult a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special,incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Formore information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.Wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Nelson, Joseph S. Fishes of the world / Joseph S. Nelson. - - 4th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-471-25031-9 (cloth) ISBN-10: 0-471-25031-7 (cloth) 1. Fishes - - Classification. I. Title. QL618.N4 2006 597.01'2- - dc22 2005033605Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contents

PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS INTRODUCTION PHYLUM CHORDATA Subphylum Craniata Superclass Myxinomorphi to Osteostracomorphi Superclass Gnathostomata †Class Placodermi, 35 Class Chondrichthyes, 39 Subclass Holocephali, 42 Order Chimaeriformes, 45 Subclass Elasmobranchii, 47 Order Heterodontiformes, 54 Order Orectolobiformes, 54Order Lamniformes, 57 Order Carcharhiniformes, 60 Order Hexanchiformes, 64 Order Echinorhiniformes, 65 Order Squaliformes, 66 Order Squatiniformes, 68 Order Pristiophoriformes, 69 Order Torpediniformes, 71

ix xiv 1 15 18 21–33 34

v

vi

Contents

Order Pristiformes, 73 Order Rajiformes, 73 Order Myliobatiformes, 76 †Class Acanthodii, 83 Class Actinopterygii, 87 Subclass Cladistia, 88Order Polypteriformes, 88 Subclass Chrondrostei, 90 Order Acipenseriformes, 92 Subclass Neopterygii, 95 Order Lepisosteiformes, 97 Order Amiiformes, 98 Division Teleostei, 100 Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha, 102 Order Hiodontiformes, 103 Order Osteoglossiformes, 104 Subdivision Elopomorpha, 108 Order Elopiformes, 110 Order Albuliformes, 111 Order Anguilliformes, 114 Order Saccopharyngiformes, 124...
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