Nanotechnology

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Types of nanotechnology used nowadays
Actually there are many types of nanotechnology, which each one have a specific application and administration, used on the development of drugs. Basically wecan categorize these nano-materials in five main groups. Each one of them are used in four major areas, which are packaging, biomarker discovery, diagnostic products, and drug delivery, according totheir specific advantages.
* Carbon fullerenes and nanotubes: they are most used to offer strength and electrical properties, they can be e single-walled or multi-walled structures.
* Ceramicnanoparticles: mostly derived from silica, titania and alumina, their porous nature makes the drug delivery easier, especially in cancer treatment.
* Liposomes: composed basically by bilayermembranes around a aqueous interior, where the drug’s active compound is solved.
* Metallic particles : iron oxide, and gold- and silver-coated particles are used for targeting drugs. As an example,gold-coated particles display excellent optical properties needed for diagnostic imaging.
* Polymers: includes chitosan and water-hybrid polymers, they improves the protein’s stability and reduceantigen-incited immune responses.

Cancer treatment
Nanotechnology may revolutionize cancer diagnosis and therapy on the following years. Treatments available nowadays, including surgery,chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy, represent high risks for patients. Targeting and localized delivery are the key challenges to make cancer therapy safer and more efficient. The use ofnanotechnology offers great possibilities of improving these specific aspects. Below follows a list showing some of the nano-materials, which will develop significantly cancer treatment (Ferrari, 2005).

*Carbon nanotubes: DNA mutation detection, disease protein biomarker detection.
* Dendrimers: controlled release drug delivery, image contrast agents.
* Nanocrystals: improved formulation for...
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